Many skin diseases, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, have a neurogenic component. In this regard, bidirectional interactions between components of the nervous system and multiple target cells in the skin and elsewhere have been receiving increasing attention. Neuropeptides released by sensory nerves that innervate the skin can directly modulate functions of keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, dermal dendritic cells, mast cells, dermal microvascular endothelial cells and infiltrating immune cells. As a result, neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors participate in a complex, interdependent network of mediators that modulate the skin immune system, skin inflammation, and wound healing. In this review, we will focus on recent studies demonstrating the roles of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, and nerve growth factor in modulating inflammation and immunity in the skin through their effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cells.