Background: A growing body of evidence links various biomarkers to atopic dermatitis (AD). Still, little is known about the association of specific biomarkers to disease characteristics and severity in AD. Objective: To explore the relationship between various immunological markers in the serum and disease severity in a hospital cohort of AD patients. Methods: Outpatients with AD referred to the Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, were divided into groups based on disease severity (SCORAD). Serum levels of a preselected panel of immunoinflammatory biomarkers were tested for association with disease characteristics. Two machine learning models were developed to predict SCORAD from the measured biomarkers. Results: A total of 160 patients with AD were included; 53 (33.1%) with mild, 73 (45.6%) with moderate, and 34 (21.3%) with severe disease. Mean age was 29.2 years (range 6–70 years) and 84 (52.5%) were females. Numerous biomarkers showed a statistically significant correlation with SCORAD, with the strongest correlations seen for CCL17/thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (chemokine ligand-17/TARC) and CCL27/cutaneous T cell-attracting-chemokine (CTACK; Spearman R of 0.50 and 0.43, respectively, p < 0.001). Extrinsic AD patients were more likely to have higher mean SCORAD (p < 0.001), CCL17 (p < 0.001), CCL26/eotaxin-3 (p < 0.001), and eosinophil count (p < 0.001) than intrinsic AD patients. Predictive models for SCORAD identified CCL17, CCL27, serum total IgE, IL-33, and IL-5 as the most important predictors for SCORAD, but with weaker associations than single cytokines. Conclusions: Specific immunoinflammatory biomarkers in the serum, mainly of the Th2 pathway, are correlated with disease severity in patients with AD. Predictive models identified biomarkers associated with disease severity but this finding warrants further investigation.

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