Background: Tattooist-related technical failures of tattooing were hitherto unstudied and related to clinical complications. Tattooing requires talent, training and experience. Amateurism is a challenge in popular tattoo industry with no formal education and certification of the tattooists. Objective: To study technical tattoo failures causing disease in a consecutive hospital material of tattoo complications. Material: 574 patients with 702 tattoo complications referred to the “Tattoo Clinic” (a subspecialised dermatological clinic) were enrolled. Patients were examined clinically and classified with respect to the cause of complication. Results: 147 (21%) tattooist and tattoo studio-related complications were recorded, i.e. excessive pigment installed in the dermis with “pigment overload” in 64 (9%), tattoo “needle trauma” with “overworked tattoos” in 43 (6%), contaminated ink causing infection in 20 (3%), and other sources of infections related to tattooing in 20 (3%). Pain and discomfort were particularly common as well as long-term complications including scarring induced by “needle trauma.” “Pigment overload” with black pigment carried a special risk of granulomatous inflammation and sarcoid granuloma and was observed in 12/35 (34%) of punch biopsies taken from tattoos with “pigment overload.” Keratoacanthoma associated with trauma was observed in 1 case. 82% of complications were related to professional tattooists working in a tattoo studio and 18% to amateurs. Conclusion: Technical failures of tattooing are associated with medical tattoo complications. “Needle trauma” with major skin damage, e.g. “overworked tattoo,” and installation of excessive pigment, e.g. “pigment overload,” and (re)use of contaminated tattoo ink bottles are identified failures calling for preventive intervention.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.