Background: Fractional microneedle radiofrequency (FMR) devices deliver energy to the deep dermis through insulated microneedles without destroying the epidermis. These FMR devices have been shown to be effective for the treatment of wrinkles, acne scars and large pores. In this study it was postulated that FMR energy could specifically affect the sweat glands, preserving the skin surface even if sweat glands were seated in the deep dermis. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of FMR for primary axillary hyperhidrosis (PAH) treatment and to conduct a histological analysis before and after treatment. Methods: Twenty patients with PAH had 2 sessions of bipolar FMR treatment at 4-week intervals. Clinical improvement was evaluated using a Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and photographs were taken using the starch-iodine test at every visit and 2 months after the last treatment. The amount of sweat reduction was indirectly assessed using a Tewameter™. Skin biopsies were obtained from 3 of the enrolled patients before and after treatment. The satisfaction and adverse reactions of the research participants were recorded at every follow-up visit. Results: HDSS scores decreased significantly from a baseline of 3.3 to 1.5 and 1.8 after the first and second months of posttreatment follow-up sessions, respectively (p < 0.001). In response to a subjective assessment at 1 month after the second treatment, 75% of patients (n = 15) had an HDSS score of 1 or 2, and 70% of patients (n = 14) expressed more than 50% improvement in their sweating. The starch-iodine reaction was also remarkably reduced in 95% of patients (n = 19) after FMR treatment. Histological findings showed a decrease in the number and size of both apocrine and eccrine glands 1 month after the final treatment. Side effects were minimal and included mild discomfort, transient swelling and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: FMR treatment was effective for the treatment of PAH without significant adverse reactions due to direct volumetric heating of the lower dermis.