Background: The efficacy of topical antifungals is controversial. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of a sequential (SEQ) treatment with chemical nail avulsion and topical antifungals to amorolfine nail lacquer in dermatophytic onychomycosis. Methods: This was a randomized, parallel-group, controlled study comparing a 36-week SEQ treatment with chemical nail avulsion with RV4104A ointment (class I medical device containing 40% urea) followed by ciclopirox cream for 8 weeks and ciclopirox nail lacquer for 25 weeks (SEQ group) to amorolfine nail lacquer for 36 weeks (AMO group). Patients had to have a big toenail onychomycosis, sparing the matrix. The primary efficacy criterion was complete cure at week 48. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Results: A total of 142 patients were randomized. The complete cure rate at week 48 was significantly higher in the SEQ group than in the AMO group (36.6 vs. 12.7%, p = 0.001). Clinical cure at week 48 was observed in 53.5% of patients in the SEQ group versus 17% in the AMO group (p < 0.01). The cost of cure per patient was 50% lower with SEQ treatment (EUR 33) compared with amorolfine (EUR 76). Conclusion: A treatment of onychomycosis comprising chemical avulsion of the pathological nail, ciclopirox cream and nail lacquer is significantly more effective than amorolfine nail lacquer.

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