Background: In 1967, Cross et al. [J Pediatr 1967;70:398–406] reported four siblings with intellectual disability, microcephaly, neurologic and ocular disorders, and hypopigmentation involving skin and hair. This novel entity, known as oculocerebral hypopigmentation syndrome (OCHS) or Cross syndrome (OMIM 257800), is assumed to be autosomal recessive. However, its genetic cause is still unknown. Case Report: A 4-year-old girl is reported with OCHS, a history of recurrent infections and vertebral fusion of L4–L5. Central nervous system and cardiac imaging as well as metabolic screening were normal. Microscopic hair investigations did not show any melanin deposit defects. Results: Using molecular cytogenetics, we detected a de novo interstitial del(3)(q27.1q29) of the paternal chromosome. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular genetics finding in a patient with OCHS. Here we discuss the genotype-phenotype correlations and suggest candidate genes for this disorder. Conclusion: Investigating further patients would enable fine-mapping the OCHS locus and identifying its putative gene.

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