Benign symmetric lipomatosis, also known as Madelung’s disease or Launois-Bensaude syndrome, is a rare disease, the etiology of which is still unknown. The presence of multiple, symmetric, nonencapsulated lipomatous masses in the face, neck, upper arms and upper trunk is typical. Until now many causes have been discussed among which liver dysfunctions are described frequently. In up to 90% of patients, alcoholism is observed. In our case the Launois-Bensaude syndrome developed after liver transplantation in a 49-year-old female patient suffering from decompensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh C score: 12 points). Shortly after the transplantation a slow progress in tissue-building appeared on both upper arms, cervical areas as well as in the face. During postsurgical prednisolone therapy, a massive increase in fluid in the tissue developed, which led to a discontinuation of this therapy regimen. In the further course there was an increase in weight of 20 kg. As far as we know, this case is the first description of the induction of a Launois-Bensaude syndrome following liver transplantation.