Background/Aims: The main debates on hyperhidrosis are whether there are some personality features such as anxiety or stress, or whether the psychological symptoms are due to negative social feedback from early life. We aimed to investigate the temperament and character dimensions with a psychobiological inventory. Methods: We recruited patients with hyperhidrosis (n = 26) and chronic renal failure (n = 44) as well as healthy subjects (n = 22) from dermatology and nephrology clinics and the general population in Afyonkarahisar. All subjects were required to perform a temperament and character inventory. Results: The total novelty seeking score in hyperhidrosis was significantly lower than in controls. There was no significance in total harm avoidance scores between hyperhidrosis patients and controls. The total reward dependence and persistence scores were significantly higher in hyperhidrosis patients. The fear of uncertainty in the harm avoidance scale was found to be significantly greater in hyperhidrosis patients. Regarding character dimensions, the total score in each of the subscales self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence was found to be higher in hyperhidrosis patients. Conclusion: The higher scores of all subscales of character dimensions in hyperhidrosis patients suggest that hyperhidrosis is not related with social phobia or personality disorder.

Strutton DR, Kowalski JW, Glaser DA, Stang PE: US prevalence of hyperhidrosis and impact on individuals with axillary hyperhidrosis: results from a national survey. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004;51:241–248.
Shih CJ, Wu JJ, Lin MT: Autonomic dysfunction in palmar hyperhidrosis. J Auton Nerv Syst 1983;8:33–43.
Kaya D, Karaca S, Barutcu I, Esen AM, Kulac M, Esen O: Heart rate variability in patients with essential hyperhidrosis: dynamic influence of sympathetic and parasympathetic maneuvers. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2005;10:1–6.
Doolabh N, Horswell S, Williams M, Huber L, Prince S, Meyer DM, et al: Thoracoscopic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis: indications and results. Ann Thorac Surg 2004;77:410–414.
Reisfeld R, Nguyen R, Pnini A: Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2002;12:255–267.
Amir M, Arish A, Weinstein Y, Pfeffer M, Levy Y: Impairment in quality of life among patients seeking surgery for hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating): preliminary results. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 2000;37:25–31.
Hamm H, Naumann MK, Kowalski JW, Kutt S, Kozma C, Teale C: Primary focal hyperhidrosis: disease characteristics and functional impairment. Dermatology 2006;212:343–353.
Ro KM, Cantor RM, Lange KL, Ahn SS: Palmar hyperhidrosis: evidence of genetic transmission. J Vasc Surg 2002;35:382–386.
Freedman AM, Kaplan HI (eds): Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, ed 7. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1999, p 3746.
Cloninger CR: A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987;44:573–588.
Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM, Przybeck TR: A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50:975–990.
Boeker H, Kleiser M, Lehman D, Jaenke L, Bogerts B, Northoff G: Executive dysfunction, self, and ego pathology in schizophrenia: an exploratory study of neuropsychology and personality. Compr Psychiatry 2006;47:7–19.
Shimizu E, Hashimoto K, Ohgake S, Koizumi H, Okamura N, Koike K, Fujisaki M, Iyo M: Association between angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene functional polymorphism and novelty seeking personality in healthy females. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006;30:99–103.
Boz C, Sayar K, Velioglu S, Hocaoglu C, Alioglu Z, Yalman B, Ozmenoglu M: Temperament and character profile in patients with chronic tension headache. Turk J Psychiatry 2004;15:105–111.
Winblad S, Lindberg C, Hansen S: Temperament and character in patients with classical myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM-1). Neuromusc Disord 2005;15:287–292.
Youn T, Lyoo IK, Kim JJ, Park HJ, Ha KS, Lee DS, Abrams KY, Lee MC, Kwon JS: Relationship between personality trait and regional cerebral glucose metabolism assessed with positron emission tomography. Biol Psychol 2002;60:109–120.
Koutsopoulou V, Theodosopoulou E, Vantsi E, Kotrotsiou E, Kostandinou V, Dounousi E: Personality dimensions of haemodialysis patients related to initial renal disease. EDTNA ERCA J 2002;28:21–24.
Christensen AJ, Ehlers SL, Wiebe JS, Moran PJ, Raichle K, Femeyhough K, Lawton WJ: Patient personality and mortality: a 4-year prospective examination of chronic renal insufficiency. Health Psychol 2002;21:315–320.
Gillespie NA, Cloninger CR, Heath AC, Martin NG: The genetic and environmental relationship between Cloninger’s dimensions of temperament and character. Pers Individ Diff 2003;35:1931–1946.
Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM, Przybeck TR: Can personality assessment predict future depression? A twelve-month follow-up of 631 subjects. J Affect Disord 2006;92:35–44.
Cloninger CR: A practical way to diagnose personality disorder: a proposal. J Personal Disord 2000;14:99–108.
Svrakic DM, Whitehead C, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR: Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the seven factor model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50:991–999.
Stolman LP: In hyperhidrosis (excess sweating) look for a pattern and cause: review. Cleve Clin J Med 2003;70:896–898.
Cloninger CR: A unified biosocial theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states: a reply to commentaries. Psychiatry Dev 1988;2:83–120.
Marteinsdottir I, Tillfors M, Furmark T, Anderberg UM, Ekselius L: Personality dimensions measured by the temperament and character inventory (TCI) in subjects with social phobia. Nord J Psychiatry 2003;57:29–35.
Farmer A, Mahmood A, Redman K, Harris T, Sadler S, McGuffin P: A sib-pair study of the Temperament and Character Inventory scales in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60:490–496.
Weber A, Heger S, Sinkgraven R, Heckmann M, Elsner P, Rzany B: Psychosocial aspects of patients with focal hyperhidrosis: marked reduction of social phobia, anxiety and depression and increased quality of life after treatment with botulinum toxin A. Br J Dermatol 2005;114:342–345.
Svrakic DM, Draganic S, Hill K, Bayon C, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR: Temperament, character, and personality disorders: etiological, diagnostic, treatment issues. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002;106:189–195.
Arkar H, Sorias O, Tunca Z, Safak C, Alkın T, Akdede BB, Sahin S, Akvardar Y, Sarı O, Ozerdem A, Cimilli C: Factorial structure, validity and reliability of the Turkish Temperament and Character Inventory. Turk J Psychiatry 2005;16:190–204.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.