Background: In the published studies on the efficacy of the topical immunomodulator pimecrolimus, different eczema scores were used, and the impact on morphological key signs of eczema was not analysed. Objective: To compare the influence of pimecrolimus cream 1% on different standard eczema scores in infants with atopic dermatitis and to analyse the impact of treatment on the individual morphological key signs of eczema. Methods: Pimecrolimus cream 1% (n = 129) or double-blind vehicle control (n = 66) was administered for 4 weeks. The Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), Investigators’ Global Assessment (IGA) and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis Index (SCORAD) were determined and were correlated with each other. Results: Following treatment with pimecrolimus, the EASI, IGA and SCORAD were significantly reduced on day 29 as compared with the vehicle group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively). There was a close correlation between EASI, IGA and SCORAD. The single parameters of the EASI were already significantly decreased by day 4 in the pimecrolimus group as compared to vehicle (each p < 0.001). Conclusion: Treatment with pimecrolimus 1% cream leads to a rapid improvement of all morphological signs of eczema. The close correlation of different scores was shown for the first time.

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