In Europe, especially in the Mediterranean, the incidence of Microsporum canis infection has been on a steep increase during the recent years. In some countries (Italy) and geographic areas (Slovenia), M. canis is the most often isolated dermatophyte. In Slovenia (Yugoslavia), a dramatic increase in the incidence of M. canis infection has been observed recently, both in absolute figures and as compared to the rest of isolated dermatophytes. M. canis is a cause of tinea most prevalent in children. All attempts made during the past 6 years to eliminate the natural source of infection, represented mainly by stray cats, have failed. M. canis infection is becoming a serious epidemiologic problem in Europe. For its solution, integrated efforts of medical and veterinary services, and probably more stringent rules and controls in this particular area, will be required.