During physical and immunologic investigations on onchocerciasis in 1,298 persons in the Republic of Liberia, the following results were obtained. There is a significant correlation between immune response and Onchocerca volvulus infection detected by a microfilaria-positive skin biopsy. On the other hand, the immune response is not influenced by the number of parasites in the skin, and there is no correlation of the immune response with Onchocerca nodules and with pruritus. There is a high proportion of serologically false-positive and false-negative results, and thus a diagnosis cannot be made simply by establishing evidence for antibodies in one person.

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