During a 1-year epidemiological investigation of the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the endemic area round the Rio Pachitea (Peruvian virgin forest, catchment area of the upper Rio Ucayali), we diagnosed 120 cases of leishmaniasis tegumentaria sudamericana (Espundia). Of these cases 27 were treated at the local tropical medicine clinic at Puerto Inca: 6 of them received stibophen, and 21 of them stibophen, and 21 of them amphotericin B. The treatment of leishmaniasis tegumentaria sudamericana with amphotericin B is discussed in detail. The use of stibophen is confined to fresh skin ulcers, while amphotericin B is the only drug known to date that holds out hope of success in all mucocutaneous and chronic forms of the disease.

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