The relation between the type of hyperlipoproteinemia and the xanthoma type found in the same patient is discussed on the basis of literature and own observations. The cholesterol level of the blood gives not enough information on disturbances in the lipoprotein metabolism, at least also triglyceride and/or total lipid estimations should be performed. Xanthomata tendinea are characteristic for an enhanced low density lipoprotein level in the blood and are often accompanied by ischemic heart disease. Eruptive xanthomata and enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels belong together. The enhanced VLDL level may be favorably influenced by a reduction diet with a low proportion of carbohydrates.