Probenecid pharmacokinetics were studied in 5 cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects and 5 control subjects at oral dosages of 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg. Serum and urine samples were collected for 8 h after administration and assayed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by model-independent methods. All parameters were compared by 2-tailed analysis of variance with two major groupings:patient and dose. Both CF subjects and controls demonstrated dose-dependent kinetics,i.e., decreased elimination constant and decreased total body clearance with increasing dosage. The volume of distribution and time to peak were the only parameters that were not significantly dose dependent. At all dosages studied, we found no significant difference in total body clearance by CF subjects. Urinary recovery in an 8-hour period was not significantly different between CF subjects and controls nor was the percentage of dose recovered in the urine at each dosage level. Time to peak concentration varied widely between 0.5 and 4 h in both CF subjects and controls. We conclude, that CF patients have normal probenecid clearance, and that the standard dose for a CF patient is sufficient to attain a serum area under the curve equivalent to that of controls.