This collection includes articles presented at the 13th Hershey Conference on Developmental Brain Injury (Union, WA, USA, May 31-June 3, 2022), organized by Drs. Juul, Wood, Nance, Vannucci, Ferriero, Hagberg, Gressens, Chavez-Valdez, Sebir, and Levison, and financially supported by NIH (NINDS 1R13NS127525), Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Foundation, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and Karger Publishing House. The conference brought together clinicians and basic scientists with the goal of understanding the mechanisms that lead to perinatal brain injury, with specific emphasis on inflammation, epigenetics, brain development, and potential treatment strategies.

The articles collated here focus on:

  • diverse mechanisms that contribute to developmental brain injuries including immune activation, microbiome, social determinants, and health disparities;
  • MRI and blood-based biomarkers for assessing and predicting brain injury as well as progress in testing new neuroprotective therapies or refining existing paradigms;
  • short and long-term consequences of premature birth and perinatal hypoxia-ischemia.


This special issue is relevant to both clinicians and basic scientists interested in the developing nervous system, its vulnerability to injury, and the progress in preventing short and long-term consequences of antenatal and term insults on brain health and function.

Edited by

Raul Chavez-Valdez, MD,PhD – Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

Jessica L. Wisnowski, PhD – Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine of USC., Los Angeles, CA

Steven W. Levison, PhD – Rutgers Biomedial Health Sciences-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ


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