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Introduction: Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms. It may compromise quality of life and social functioning and result in increased healthcare use and costs. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of constipation symptoms, as well as those of refractory constipation symptoms among patients who underwent colonoscopy. Methods: Over 4.5 years, patients who underwent colonoscopy and completed questionnaires were analyzed. Patients’ symptoms were evaluated using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale. Results: Among 8,621 eligible patients, the prevalence of constipation symptoms was 33.3%. Multivariate analysis revealed female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.7, P < 0.001), older age (OR 1.3, P < 0.001), cerebral stroke with paralysis (OR 1.7, P = 0.009), chronic renal failure (OR 2.6, P < 0.001), ischemic heart disease (OR 1.3, P = 0.008), diabetes (OR 1.4, P < 0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.5, P = 0.002), benzodiazepine use (OR 1.7, P < 0.001), antiparkinsonian medications use (OR 1.9, P = 0.030), and opioid use (OR 2.1, P = 0.002) as independent risk factors for constipation symptoms. The number of patients taking any medication for constipation was 1,134 (13.2%); however, refractory symptoms of constipation were still present in 61.4% of these patients. Diabetes (OR 1.5, P = 0.028) and irritable bowel syndrome (OR 3.1, P < 0.001) were identified as predictors for refractory constipation symptoms. Conclusions: Constipation occurred in one-third of patients, and more than half of patients still exhibited refractory symptoms of constipation despite taking laxatives. Multiple medications and concurrent diseases seem to be associated with constipation symptoms.

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