Introduction: We investigated the factors associated with synchronous multiple early gastric cancers and determined their localization. Methods: We analyzed 8,191 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancers at 33 hospitals in Japan from November 2013 to October 2016. Background factors were compared between single-lesion (n = 7,221) and synchronous multi-lesion cases (n = 970) using univariate and multivariate analyses. We extracted cases with two synchronous lesions (n = 832) and evaluated their localization. Results: Significant independent risk factors for synchronous multiple early gastric cancer were older age (≥75 years old) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.257), male sex (OR = 1.385), severe mucosal atrophy (OR = 1.400), tumor localization in the middle (OR = 1.362) or lower region (OR = 1.404), and submucosal invasion (OR = 1.528 [SM1], 1.488 [SM2]). Depressed macroscopic type (OR = 0.679) and pure undifferentiated histology OR = 0.334) were more common in single early gastric cancers. When one lesion was in the upper region, the other was more frequently located in the lesser curvature of the middle region. When one lesion was in the middle region, the other was more frequently located in the middle region or the lesser curvature of the lower region. When one lesion was in the lower region, the other was more frequently located in the lesser curvature of the middle region or the lower region. Conclusion: Factors associated with synchronous multiple early gastric cancer included older age, male sex, severe mucosal atrophy, tumor localization in the middle or lower region, and tumor submucosal invasion. Our findings provide useful information regarding specific areas that should be examined carefully when one lesion is detected.

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