Introduction:Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy may worsen gastroesophageal reflux disease that is a significant risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. However, the relationship between eradication therapy and Barrett’s esophagus remains controversial. This study evaluated the impact of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the lengthening of Barrett’s esophagus. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who successfully underwent Helicobacter pylori eradication between 2004 and 2017. Endoscopic images obtained before and after eradication therapy were compared for Barrett’s esophagus length according to the Prague C&M criteria and the presence of reflux esophagitis based on the Los Angeles classification. Results: A total of 340 patients were analyzed (mean age: 66.9 ± 12.9 years) for a median follow-up of 55 months (interquartile range: 29.8–89.3). At the initial endoscopic assessment, 187 patients (55%) had a hiatal hernia, and all patients had gastric atrophy (C-0 to I: 2%, C-II to III: 47%, O-I to III: 51%). Reflux esophagitis was detected in 7 patients (2%) before eradication and in 21 patients (6%) afterward, which was a significant increase (p = 0.007). Barrett’s esophagus was identified in 69 patients (20%) before eradication, with a median length of C0M1. Elongation after treatment was observed in only 2 patients (0.6%). We observed no significant increase in either the prevalence (p = 0.85) or the median length (p = 0.5) of Barrett’s esophagus. Conclusions: Only 0.6% of patients exhibited Barrett’s esophagus lengthening after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, suggesting no significant impact of the treatment on the development or elongation of Barrett’s esophagus.

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