Background and Aim:Helicobacter pylori infection is a primary cause of gastroduodenal ulcers. To investigate whether there is an association between H. pylori infection and small intestinal mucosal injury. Methods: Patients were selected from a general pool of subjects who underwent capsule endoscopy for current or past obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Characteristics including age, gender, history, treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or acid suppressant, diagnosis, and H. pylori infection were investigated. Patients infected with H. pylori had positive test result, ranging 30 days before to 30 days after capsule endoscopy. Patients diagnosed with inflammatory diseases, malignant tumors, etc. were excluded. All video images were re-evaluated to count small intestinal mucosal breaks. Eligible patient variables were compared. Results: A total of 92 patients (30 infected with H. pylori/62 uninfected) were eligible. By univariate analysis of the number of mucosal breaks, patients treated with NSAIDs were found to have more mucosal breaks than patients untreated (38%: 8/21 vs. 18%: 13/71; p = 0.004), and the possible association was detected between patients infected with H. pylori and those who were not (67%: 14/21 vs. 37%: 26/71; p = 0.081). When comparing the H. pylori infected and uninfected patients, the rate of patients with mucosal breaks was greater in infected patients (47%: 14/30 vs. 11%: 7/62; p = 0.001). After excluding patients treated with NSAIDs, the number of mucosal breaks was also greater in patients infected with H. pylori (1.2 ± 1.5 vs. 0.38 ± 0.62; p = 0.001). Conclusion: There is a possibility that H. pylori infection induces small intestinal mucosal injury.

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