Background/Aims: Early-stage gastric cancer (EGC) is detected even after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication. This study is aimed at clarifying the clinicopathological characteristics of EGC detected after successful H. pylori eradication. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 57 cases of EGC detected after successful H. pylori eradication and resected endoscopically at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, between January 2009 and June 2014. Clinicopathological findings of 57 cases (H. pylori-eradicated group) were investigated, and compared with those in active H. pylori infection resected in the same period (H. pylori-positive group). Results: Most EGCs were detected in patients with severe atrophic mucosa, both in H. pylori-eradicated and H. pylori-positive groups, while the percentage of EGC detected in patients with mild atrophic mucosa gradually increased over time from successful eradication (H. pylori-positive: 7%, up to the fourth year since eradication: 11%, after the fifth year since eradication: 32%). The percentage of EGC detected in patients with mild atrophic mucosa after the fifth year since eradication was significantly higher than that in patients with active H. pylori infection (p = 0.004). Conclusion: After the fifth year following eradication, we should be alert to the incidence of EGC, irrespective of the severity of mucosal atrophic change.

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