Nowadays, mucosal healing is regarded as a major end point in clinical trials and is increasingly used in clinical practice for the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The definition of mucosal healing varies across studies and validated endoscopic scoring indices are still lacking. The advent of anti-tumor necrosis factor agents has changed the way of treating inflammatory bowel disease and high rates of induction and maintenance of mucosal healing can be achieved with this drug class. Mucosal healing is desirable as it may change the natural course of the disease by decreasing surgery and hospitalization rates in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

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