Background: The utility of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in predicting tumor depth among superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (SNADETs) is unclear. The aim was to compare EUS with conventional endoscopy (CE) for the evaluation of tumor invasion of SNADETs. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on consecutive 174 lesions/169 patients with duodenal dysplasia or adenocarcinoma with invasion up to submucosa who underwent both CE and EUS before endoscopic (n = 133) or surgical (n = 41) treatment. Endoscopic staging by CE was performed based on the characteristic endoscopic criteria of submucosal invasion (irregular surface, submucosal tumor [SMT]-like marginal elevation, and fusion of converging folds). The diagnostic performance of each test was compared with the final histology. Results: The sensitivity and accuracy of estimating the depth were higher for CE compared to that of EUS (99.4% vs. 89.4%, p < 0.01 and 97.7% vs. 87.9%, p < 0.01, respectively). Univariate analysis of endoscopic factors revealed that tumor diameter, red color, SMT-like appearance, and hypoechogenicity were factors related to advanced histology. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of SMT-like appearance based on CE was an independent factor to predict submucosal invasion (p = 0.025). Gross morphology of the combined type was associated to incorrect diagnosis of EUS (p = 0.007). Among 3 cases in which EUS overestimated the tumor depth, carcinoma extension in submucosal Brunner’s gland or nontumorous submucosal cystic dilation was observed. Conclusion: EUS may not be necessary, and CE may be sufficient for determining the optimal therapeutic strategy for SNADETs.

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