Backgrounds/Aims: Vonoprazan (VPZ) is the first clinically available potassium competitive acid blocker. This class of agents provides faster and more potent acid inhibition than proton pump inhibitors. Most strains of Helicobacter pylori are sensitive to amoxicillin. We hypothesized that dual therapy with VPZ and amoxicillin would provide the sufficient eradication rate for H. pylori infection. To evaluate this, we compared the eradication rate by the dual VPZ/amoxicillin therapy with that by the standard triple VPZ/amoxicillin/clarithromycin therapy. Methods: Non-inferiority of the eradication rate of H. pylori by the dual therapy with VPZ 20 mg twice daily (bid) and amoxicillin 500 mg 3 times daily (tid) for 1 week to that by the triple therapy with VPZ 20 mg bid, amoxicillin 750 mg bid and clarithromycin 200 mg bid for 1 week was retrospectively studied. Propensity score matching was performed to improve comparability between 2 regimen groups. Successful eradication was diagnosed using the [13C]-urea breath test at 1–2 months after the end of eradication therapy. Results: The intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated that the eradication rate by the dual therapy (92.9%; 95% CI 82.7–98.0%, 52/56) was not inferior to that of the triple therapy (91.9%; 95% CI 80.4–97.0%, 51/56; OR 1.275, 95% CI 0.324–5.017%, p = 0.728). There were no statistically significant differences in incidences of adverse events between 2 regimens. Conclusion: VPZ-based dual therapy (VPZ 20 mg bid and amoxicillin 500 mg tid for 1 week) provides an acceptable eradication rate of H. pylori infection without the need for second antimicrobial agents, such as clarithromycin.

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