Background: Depression is a prevalent and disabling condition in older persons (≥60 years) that increases the risk of mortality and negatively influences quality of life (QOL). The relationship between depression, or depressive symptoms, and QOL has been increasingly addressed by research in recent years, but a review that can contribute to a better understanding of this relationship in older persons is lacking. Against this background, we undertook a literature review to assess the relationship between depression and QOL in older persons. Summary: Extensive electronic database searches revealed 953 studies. Of these, 74 studies fulfilled our criteria for inclusion, of which 52 were cross-sectional studies and 22 were longitudinal studies. Thirty-five studies were conducted in a clinical setting, while 39 were community-based epidemiological studies. A clear definition of the QOL concept was described in 25 studies, and 24 different assessment instruments were employed to assess QOL. Depressed older persons had poorer global and generic health-related QOL than nondepressed individuals. An increase in depression severity was associated with a poorer global and generic health-related QOL. The associations appeared to be stable over time and independent of how QOL was assessed. Key Messages: This review found a significant association between severity of depression and poorer QOL in older persons, and the association was found to be stable over time, regardless which assessment instruments for QOL were applied. The lack of a definition of the multidimensional and multilevel concept QOL was common, and the large variety of QOL instruments in various studies make a direct comparison between the studies difficult.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has predicted that by 2020 depression will become the third leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. Depression in older persons (≥60 years) is prevalent in community living settings [2,3,4,5,6,7,8] and even more prevalent among older individuals who have been hospitalized due to serious physical diseases or institutionalized due to reduced physical and/or cognitive functioning [9,10,11,12]. Known risk factors for depression are female gender [1,13], older age [14,15], poorer coping abilities [16], physical morbidity [2,4,9,17,18,19,20,21,22], impaired level of functioning [2,5,6,9,13,18,23,24,25,26,27,28,29], reduced cognition [2,3,8,20,30,31,32,33,34,35], and bereavement [13,36]. Depression has been associated with an increased risk of mortality [2,37], and poorer outcome of treatment of physical disorders [4,10]. In addition, depression may influence quality of life (QOL) negatively [38,39,40].

The WHO defines the concept of QOL as ‘individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns' [41]. QOL is a multidimensional and multilevel concept. The QOL concept is often divided into three levels, where global QOL is at the highest level in a hierarchy, followed by generic health-related QOL (HQOL) at the next level, and disease-specific HQOL (not included in this review) at the third and lowest level [42]. Global QOL may include general life satisfaction (LS) and covers general feelings of well-being (WB) [38,42] and other aspects such as economic situation, health, social and/or spiritual aspects of life [43]. Generic HQOL usually includes domains such as physical, psychological, social, and environmental evaluations of life [38], with both positive and negative aspects [38,41]. Therefore, generic HQOL is a more comprehensive concept than the current health status of an individual.

Several studies worldwide have explored the relationship between depressive symptoms or a depressive disorder and QOL in older persons, but as far as we know, there is no review. A review can offer a summary of existing quantitative research with a quality assessment of each study to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between depression and QOL. The wide range of definitions of QOL complicates the research field and may make comparisons between studies difficult. Furthermore, the wide variety of assessment instruments for both depression/depressive symptoms and QOL [2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,18,20,21,25,26,34,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51] increases the need for a review of the existing research. Given these challenges, the aim of the present study was to review the literature on the association between depression and QOL in older persons.

Selection of Studies

We conducted a systematic, computerized search in the MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL databases (end date March 9, 2014). We used the terms ‘depress' (with truncation, which included all words that contained depress, such as depression, depressed, depressive etc.), AND ‘older persons' OR ‘aging' OR ‘elder care' OR ‘geriatric patient' OR ‘geriatric psychiatry' OR ‘geriatric psychotherapy' AND ‘quality of life' OR ‘life satisfaction' OR ‘well-being'. According to database-specific rules, CINAHL headings, key words, and MeSH terms were combined, as in ‘depression in old age' OR ‘depression in the elderly'. In addition, reference lists were screened to find studies that were otherwise not detected by the systematic searches. Studies were included in the review if they met the following criteria:

• mean age of studied subjects ≥60 years,

• a quantitative design,

• depression was classified according to established diagnostic criteria [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM); International Classification of Diseases (ICD)] or assessed and defined by a specific depression instrument,

• at least 1 assessment instrument for global QOL or generic HQOL,

• an assessment of a relationship between depression and the concept of QOL was undertaken in the same individuals,

• the study was published in a scientific referee-based journal written in English.

Studies were excluded from the review if they were theoretical, reviews, editorials, comments or disseminations.

Identification of Relevant Studies

The titles and abstracts of 953 record hits were screened; 26 additional records were located by examining reference lists to identify relevant publications not detected by the computerized search. After screening titles and abstracts, 523 studies were kept for full-text screening and evaluation based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search, screening, and full-text screening were performed by 2 researchers (H.S. and A.-S.H.). Detailed information about the studies that were identified, screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in this review is presented in the PRISMA flow diagram (fig. 1) [52].

Fig. 1

Flow diagram of studies identified, screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in this review [52]. * Theoretical records excluded the use of theoretical articles, reviews, comments, protocols and dissertations. ** Other reasons for excluding studies were, e.g., same participants used in more than one study without new results (n = 2).

Fig. 1

Flow diagram of studies identified, screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in this review [52]. * Theoretical records excluded the use of theoretical articles, reviews, comments, protocols and dissertations. ** Other reasons for excluding studies were, e.g., same participants used in more than one study without new results (n = 2).

Close modal

Quality Assessment

Based on theoretical considerations and methodological aspects, the quality of each of the studies was assessed according to predefined criteria [53,54]. Eight quality criteria (fig. 2) were used. The first five were scored as 0 or 1, whereas the three latter were scored as 0, 1, or 2 because valid and reliable information on depression and the QOL assessment was considered to be of leading importance in the evaluation covering the main focus of this review. Thus, the quality score varied between 0 and 11.

Fig. 2

Criteria for assessing quality.

Fig. 2

Criteria for assessing quality.

Close modal

Choosing a summary cutoff score for ‘high quality' remains arbitrary [55] but is usually within a threshold between 50 and 70% of the maximum obtainable points [16,53,56], and an a priori cutoff value for ‘high quality' above 60% was established. A study was considered to be ‘high quality' when it scored ≥7 points, and ‘low quality' when it scored ≤6 points of the maximum obtainable 11 points. This simple method recommended in the Cochrane Handbook for Reviews was selected to ascertain the validity of the review [55,57].

Methodological Quality of the Studies

In total, 52 studies had a cross-sectional design, and 22 studies had a longitudinal design (tables 1, 2). The concept of QOL was defined in 25 studies. The results of the quality assessment showed that one longitudinal study received 11 points (1.4%). Of the 74 studies, 32 cross-sectional (43.3%) and 21 longitudinal (95.5%) were high quality, according to our evaluation. Studies that received ≤6 points lacked four or more of the quality criteria.

Table 1

Quality assessment of the cross-sectional studies (n = 52)

Quality assessment of the cross-sectional studies (n = 52)
Quality assessment of the cross-sectional studies (n = 52)
Table 2

Quality assessment of the longitudinal studies (n = 22)

Quality assessment of the longitudinal studies (n = 22)
Quality assessment of the longitudinal studies (n = 22)

No studies reported difficulties administrating the QOL instruments. In all, 45 studies reported that they excluded individuals with cognitive impairment or a diagnosis of dementia, of which 30 were cross-sectional studies (58.8%) [11,12,17,19,24,30,31,32,33,37,58,59,60,62,63,64,65,66,69,72,73,75,76,77,78,88,89,90,91,92] and 15 were longitudinal studies (68.2%) [2,3,4,8,10,18,20,21,25,26,34,45,46,48,49]. Cognitive function was equally assessed in clinical studies (n = 11) and in community-based studies (n = 12). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used in 23 studies [2,8,10,12,17,19,20,25,26,31,32,33,37,48,58,62,66,69,73,78,88,89,90] for exclusion purposes. To exclude participants, the cutoff score for the MMSE varied considerably between the studies, i.e. a short form was used in one study with a cutoff ≤5. Otherwise, the range in the original MMSE was ≤9-28 (tables 3, 4).

Table 3

Cross-sectional studies (n = 52)

Cross-sectional studies (n = 52)
Cross-sectional studies (n = 52)
Table 4

Longitudinal studies (n = 22)

Longitudinal studies (n = 22)
Longitudinal studies (n = 22)

Settings and Samples

Of the 74 studies, 34 studies were clinical studies and 39 studies were community-based epidemiological studies. One study was carried out simultaneously in hospitals, primary health-care settings and in the community (tables 3, 4). The most frequent setting in the clinical studies was psychogeriatric hospitals (inpatients, 4 studies; outpatients, 7 studies) and medical hospitals (inpatients, 6 studies; outpatients, 3 studies). The remaining clinical studies (14 studies) were carried out in primary care settings such as GP practices, nursing homes, long-term care or assisted living facilities. The mean age of the participants in the studies varied between 62.8 and 86.5 years. The proportion of females for all studies was 70% or higher in 26 (35.1%) of the studies we reviewed.

High-quality cross-sectional studies (32 studies) were conducted in clinical settings (16 studies), hospitals (11 studies), and primary health care (5 studies). The remaining 16 studies were community based. The high-quality longitudinal studies (21 studies) were conducted in clinical settings in 11 studies, in hospitals (8 studies), and primary health-care settings (3 studies), while the remaining 10 studies were community based.

Geographical Region

The 74 published studies showed notable differences in the usage of diagnostic procedures and assessments of depression/depressive symptoms across regions of the world (tables 3, 4). While structured clinical interviews were commonly used in North America (USA and Canada; 43.5%) and Asia (including Russia and the United Arab Emirates; 36.8%), they were less frequently used in Europe (23.8%). The use of QOL assessment instruments across regions varied. While the use of the WHO Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-100, and WHOQOL-OLD) instruments dominated in Europe (8 of 21 studies), LS instruments dominated in the USA (13 of 23 studies), whereas in South America (Mexico and Brazil) almost all studies used the Medical Outcomes Study short form (SF-36; 6 of 7 studies). In Asia, no instrument seemed to dominate.

All continents were represented among the 74 studies. Studies from North America (31.1%), Asia, the Middle East and Russia (28.4%), and Europe (27%) were most common, followed by South America (9.5%) and Oceania (Australia; 2.7%). One study (1.4%) included 20 countries from four continents [80].

Assessment of Depression

In all, 18 different instruments were used to assess depression/depressive symptoms including self-report instruments, observational inventories, structural interviews and/or diagnostic evaluation (DSM/ICD; table 5). More than 1 assessment instrument for depression/depressive symptoms was employed in 22 studies. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) [94,95] was used in 39 studies and was the most common assessment instrument, while 10 different instruments were used only once for the specific study.

Table 5

Diagnostic evaluation and instruments used assessing depression or depressive symptoms

Diagnostic evaluation and instruments used assessing depression or depressive symptoms
Diagnostic evaluation and instruments used assessing depression or depressive symptoms

Concepts and Assessment of QOL

In all, 24 different instruments were used to assess QOL (table 6). We categorized these assessment instruments according to the QOL concept hierarchy, i.e. global QOL including WB and general LS and secondly generic HQOL. QOL was assessed at two concept levels in 6 studies [10,33,45,78,84,91], and one study used a previously unknown assessment instrument that we categorized as a global QOL assessment [50]. The global QOL and generic HQOL assessment instruments were employed equally often, i.e. in 38 and 42 studies, respectively.

Table 6

QOL instruments

QOL instruments
QOL instruments

Only 24 (32.4%) of the studies used assessment instruments that had been specifically developed for older persons (≥60 years), such as the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI), the Philadelphia Geriatric Morale Scale (PGC), the WHO Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults (WHOQOL-OLD), CASP-19, the Purpose in Life Test (PIL), the Life Purpose Questionnaire (LPQ), and the Salamon-Conte Life Satisfaction in the Elderly Scale (LSES).

Thirty-one studies assessed global QOL with instruments that evaluated LS, of which 14 relied on the LSI (LSR, LSI-A; short version LSI-Z; tables 3, 4). The concept of WB was less frequently used (11 studies). In total, 9 assessment instruments of global QOL were used in one study each, 5 of which we categorized as a WB instrument. Eleven studies used >1 assessment instrument to assess global QOL and generic HQOL. One study used a combined WB and generic HQOL assessment instrument.

The most frequently used generic HQOL assessment instrument (21 studies) was the Medical Outcomes Study General Health, including older (MOS; 6- and 20-item versions) and newer versions (SF-8, 12, 20, and 36). Generic HQOL was assessed as the only QOL concept in 35 studies.

High-Quality Studies

Fifteen of the high-quality studies with a cross-sectional design (a total of 32 studies) used global QOL assessment instruments (including assessments of LS in 14 of the studies, and WB and LS in 1 study). Seven studies recruited persons in clinical settings (1 study in medical hospital; 6 in primary health care), and 6 studies recruited persons from the community. Persons with cognitive impairment were excluded in nearly all of these (12 of 15 global QOL studies). Generic HQOL assessment instruments were used in 17 studies, where 11 studies recruited persons in clinical settings (5 studies in psychogeriatric hospitals; 5 studies in medical hospitals; 1 study in primary care), and 6 studies recruited persons in the community. Persons with cognitive impairment were excluded in 11 of these studies. In addition, 2 studies used global QOL (LS) and generic HQOL instruments. Both of these studies recruited persons from the community and excluded individuals with cognitive impairment.

Global QOL assessment instruments were used in 9 of the 21 high-quality methodological studies with a longitudinal design (including assessment of LS in 4 studies, WB in 2 studies and both LS and WB in 3 studies). Of these, 3 studies recruited persons in clinical settings (2 studies in a psychogeriatric hospital; 1 study in primary care) and 6 studies recruited persons from the community. Persons with cognitive impairment were excluded in 3 studies. Generic HQOL assessment instruments were used in 10 longitudinal high-quality studies, where 6 studies recruited persons in clinical settings (5 in psychogeriatric hospital; 1 in medical hospital; 1 in primary care), and 4 studies recruited persons in the community. Two studies used both global QOL (LS or WB) and generic HQOL assessment instruments and recruited persons from the clinical and community setting. Persons with cognitive impairment were excluded in all of the studies that used any of the generic HQOL instruments (12 studies), with one exception [50].

The Relationship between Depression and QOL

In the 53 studies with a quality score of ≥7 points (tables 1, 2), the main finding was that the severity of depression was associated with poorer QOL. This association appeared to be stable over time and independent of whether a global QOL or a generic HQOL assessment instrument was employed (tables 3, 4).

Studies on the Relationship between Depression and Global QOL

All of the high-quality cross-sectional studies that solely assessed global QOL (11 studies) reported a negative association between depression and global QOL. A higher depression symptom score was associated with poorer global QOL. Depressed persons had poorer QOL than nondepressed persons.

In the high-quality longitudinal studies that solely assessed global QOL (9 studies), a depressive disorder or a high depression symptom score at baseline was related to poorer QOL at follow-up. An improvement in QOL was seen in fully and not fully recovered depressed persons compared to those with persistent depression.

Studies on the Relationship between Depression and Generic HQOL

The high-quality cross-sectional studies that assessed generic HQOL (19 studies) reported that a depressive disorder and a higher depressive symptom score were associated with poorer generic HQOL. Older persons with depressive symptoms and additional physical comorbidity had poorer generic HQOL than those without any comorbidity, independent of the depressive symptom load.

In the high-quality longitudinal studies (10 studies) that relied solely on generic HQOL, a depressive disorder and a higher depressive symptom score were consistently associated with poorer generic HQOL. Persons with a depressive disorder at baseline had poorer generic HQOL at follow-up than nondepressed individuals, and the severity of depressive symptoms at baseline had a negative effect on an improvement in generic HQOL at follow-up. Depression with physical comorbidity at baseline was associated with poorer generic HQOL at follow-up. Depressed persons with two physical conditions or more had poorer generic HQOL compared with persons with fewer physical conditions.

Generally, most of the generic HQOL domains were affected in a negative way by a depressive disorder or a severe degree of depressive symptoms, except for physical functioning (role limitations due to physical health) and in the mental domain (emotional, psychological functioning) [3,10,21,25,45,82]. Two studies found that general health and vitality (and energy level) were not affected by depression [2,21] while spiritual, body pain, and satisfaction with living arrangements domains were not affected by depression in 1 study each [2,25,45].

The 74 studies we examined used a large number of assessment instruments assessing depression or depressive symptoms and QOL. Most of the instruments for assessing depressive symptoms were self-report instruments. This diversity in the use of instruments hinders comparisons between studies and limits the potential to summarize data into estimates of the relationship between depression and QOL. Nevertheless, as one would expect, the main findings were that depression (at both the symptom and the disease level) was associated with poorer QOL, and that this association appeared to be stable over time and independent of whether global QOL or generic HQOL were studied. Furthermore, the high-quality cross-sectional studies reported that depressed persons had poorer QOL than nondepressed persons. The high-quality longitudinal studies established that depression at baseline predicted poorer QOL at follow-up. A higher baseline depression symptom score was related to poorer QOL and improvements in QOL were less likely to be detected at follow-up.

There is considerable agreement that QOL should be seen as a multilevel and multidimensional concept, but there is an absence of consensus on how to define QOL and dimensions of generic HQOL [38,41]. Some of the operationalized constructs partly overlap [38], which results in different QOL constructs being assessed. To interpret the findings of the studies, it is important to explicitly define which QOL concept has been used and use a well-tested assessment instrument that covers the chosen definition. In this review, we found that QOL was defined or conceptualized explicitly in only about one third (25/74) of all the studies and that about one sixth (12/74) of the QOL assessment instruments were used only once.

Our review revealed that the choice of assessment instruments seemed to be made for cultural or geographical reasons, and did not appear to be related to a theoretical framework. Assessment instruments of generic HQOL dominated in Europe and South America, while assessments of global QOL dominated in the USA. There were also geographical differences as to how to assess depression. Structural clinical interviews to diagnose depression were most commonly used in North America and Asia, but were seldom used in Europe.

Furthermore, the negative association between depression and QOL was consistent in high-quality cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, independent of the type of sample studied. In the longitudinal studies of psychogeriatric patients, global QOL and generic HQOL domains were negatively affected by the severity of depression. Recovering from depression after treatment resulted in higher QOL, and the QOL increased even in patients who did not fully recover from the depressive episode. As time goes by, older persons may accept their loss of health and function due to biological and psychosocial changes to some extent, and thus may lower their expectations and adjust their internal standards to level out the discrepancy between the possible and the actual situation (‘response shift') [140]. Consequently, QOL may be rated higher at follow-up even if an individual's health has not improved substantially. However, our review revealed that patients with more severe depression at baseline before treatment were less likely to experience improved QOL. We do not have a firm explanation for this, but it may be that persons with severe depression do not have the internal resources or capacity to adapt or adjust over time in the same way. It is evident that poor resources and coping strategies are associated with depressive disorder or severity of depressive symptoms in older persons [16].

The cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of medical and primary health-care patients also showed that the severity of depression was related to poorer global QOL and generic HQOL at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence of depression in older medical inpatients and patients in primary health care has been reported to be high in several studies [12,30,45,60,75]. Depression or depressive symptoms are the most common comorbidity in older persons with physical health difficulties [15,141,142]. Because depression affects QOL negatively regardless of medical health, it is important to detect depression and treat depressed patients. Thus, it is highly recommended that the health personnel in specialist and primary health-care settings have a dual treatment perspective, including both mental and physical health.

The negative association between depression and QOL was confirmed in numerous cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological community studies. In the longitudinal studies, as presented in table 4, the follow-up period varied from 3 months to 6 years, and there were mostly 2 assessments, with a variation from 2 to 7. In addition to depression, the studies also looked at and controlled for a wide range of risk factors for poor QOL. In the studies that had long-term follow-up, factors other than the risk factors considered by the studies might also influence QOL, such as a functional decline, stressful life events [36], locus of control [16], or a response shift in the participants' view of standards and expectations for life [49]. Despite this, the findings in the longitudinal community studies we reviewed are unambiguous: depression affects QOL negatively over time. In addition, since depression may be overlooked due to atypical symptomatology [26,30,143] or mistaken as grief over loss of health or close persons [143], it is important for health-care professionals working with older persons, health-care administrators, and health-care planners to address depression in older persons.


Our review does have its limitations. First, the literature search was mainly conducted by one reviewer. However, the computer search strategy was discussed with the co-authors, and a scientific librarian assisted in the search. Second, the search was limited to articles published in English. Thus, there may be studies in other languages with results that are different from those we reported. Third, the examination and synthesis of the outcomes were complicated due to conceptual differences in the definition of QOL and differences in study designs, sample compositions, instruments used to assess depression and QOL, settings, length of follow-up, and adjustment variables. This heterogeneity may cause validity and reliability problems, and a meta-analytic approach in evaluating the studies statistically had to be omitted due the variability in these factors. Fourth, in about 60% of the studies included in our review, it was explicitly stated that the authors had excluded persons with some degree of cognitive impairment. Assessment of QOL in persons with some degree of cognitive impairment may be difficult when using general global QOL and generic HQOL instruments; thus, disease-specific assessment instruments should be developed and used. However, the exclusion criteria for the definition of cognitive impairment varied considerably between studies. Thus, we cannot generalize the findings of this review to groups with cognitive impairment. Fifth, the approach in selecting quality criteria was chosen after advice from the Handbook for Reviews [55], but the criterion of sample size may be debatable since sample size by itself does not directly tell about the quality of the study. However, a low number of participants (<100) can influence the validity of the study due to low statistical power [53].

Sixth, only one third of the studies defined the concept of QOL. As previously stated, the lack of a theoretical foundation for QOL and the multitude of instruments make it difficult to compare study results [38,41] and draw firm conclusions. For example, global QOL most often covers a range of appraisals including economic, health, social and/or spiritual aspects of life [43] and may be expressed as overall QOL, general LS, or general feelings of WB [38,42]. Some studies seem to have defined WB not as a concept of global QOL, but as the diametrical opposite of depression. Consequently, the assessment instruments used in these studies are one-dimensional scales where the best outcome is high levels of WB, and severe depression is the worst outcome either by the use of a visual analogue scale [144] or an index of several items [129]. Thus, these studies did not examine the relationship between depressive symptom score and WB as a global assessment of QOL [145], and therefore they were not included in the review.

This review reports findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and suggests a clear and consistent relationship between depression and poorer QOL in older persons in clinical and community settings. However, the diversity of assessment instruments used in the various studies limits direct comparison between studies and the potential to summarize data as estimates of the relationship between depression and QOL. There is also a need for additional studies that review the relationship between depression and QOL in older persons with cognitive impairment.

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

World Health Organization: The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008.
Feng L, Yap KB, Ng TP: Depressive symptoms in older adults with chronic kidney disease: mortality, quality of life outcomes, and correlates. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2013;21:570-579.
Garcia-Pena C, Wagner FA, Sanchez-Garcia S, Espinel-Bermudez C, Juarez-Cedillo T, Perez-Zepeda M, Arango-Lopera V, Franco-Marina F, Ramirez-Aldana R, Gallo JJ: Late-life depressive symptoms: prediction models of change. J Affect Disord 2013;150:886-894.
Ho CS, Feng L, Fam J, Mahendran R, Kua EH, Ng TP: Coexisting medical comorbidity and depression: multiplicative effects on health outcomes in older adults. Int Psychogeriatr 2014;26:1221-1229.
Hsu HC: Physical function trajectories, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction among the elderly in Taiwan. Aging Ment Health 2009;13:202-212.
Lue BH, Chen LJ, Wu SC: Health, financial stresses, and life satisfaction affecting late-life depression among older adults: a nationwide, longitudinal survey in Taiwan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2010;50(suppl 1):34-38.
Shrira A: The effect of lifetime cumulative adversity on change and chronicity in depressive symptoms and quality of life in older adults. Int Psychogeriatr 2012;24:1988-1997.
Wolinsky FD, Unverzagt FW, Smith DM, Jones R, Wright E, Tennstedt SL: The effects of the ACTIVE cognitive training trial on clinically relevant declines in health-related quality of life. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2006;61:281-287.
Akyol Y, Durmus D, Dogan C, Bek Y, Canturk F: Quality of life and level of depressive symptoms in the geriatric population. Turk J Rheumatol 2010;25:165-173.
de Jonge P, Slaets JPJ, Kempen GIJ, Ranchor AV, van Jaarsveld CHM, Scaf-Klomp W, Sanderman R: Elderly patients predict poor adjustment after somatic events. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004;12:57-64.
Helvik AS, Engedal K, Krokstad S, Stordal E, Selbaek G: A comparison of depressive symptoms in elderly medical inpatients and the elderly in a population-based study: Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3. Nord J Psychiatry 2011;66:189-197.
Ordu Gokkaya NK, Gokce-Kutsal Y, Borman P, Ceceli E, Dogan A, Eyigor S, Karapolat H: Pain and quality of life (QoL) in elderly: the Turkish experience. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2012;55:357-362.
Cole MG, Dendukuri N: Risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:1147-1156.
Luppa M, Sikorski C, Luck T, Ehreke A, Konnopka A, Wiese S, Weyerer S, König H-H, Riedel-Heller SG: Age- and gender-specific prevalence of depression in latest-life - systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 2012;136:212-221.
Iden KR, Engedal K, Hjorleifsson S, Ruths S: Prevalence of depression among recently admitted long-term care patients in Norwegian nursing homes: associations with diagnostic workup and use of antidepressants. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2014;37:154-162.
Bjorklof GH, Engedal K, Selbaek G, Kouwenhoven SE, Helvik AS: Coping and depression in old age: a literature review. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2013;35:121-154.
Chan SWC, Chiu HFK, Chien W-T, Thompson DR, Lam L: Quality of life in Chinese elderly people with depression. J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;21:312-318.
Chan SWC, Chiu HFK, Chien WT, Goggins W, Thompson D, Hong B: Predictors of change in health-related quality of life among older people with depression: a longitudinal study. Int Psychogeriatr 2009;21:1171-1179.
Gallegos-Carrillo K, Garcia-Pena C, Mudgal J, Romero X, Duran-Arenas L, Salmeron J: Role of depressive symptoms and comorbid chronic disease on health-related quality of life among community-dwelling older adults. J Psychosom Res 2009;66:127-135.
Lavretsky H, Kurbanyan K, Ballmaier M, Mintz J, Toga A, Kumar A: Sex differences in brain structure in geriatric depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004;12:653-657.
Shmuely Y, Baumgarten M, Rovner B, Berlin J: Predictors of improvement in health-related quality of life among elderly patients with depression. Int Psychogeriatr 2001;13:63-73.
Boey KW: The use of GDS-15 among the older adults in Beijing. Clin Gerontol 2000;21:49-60.
Brown PJ, Roose SP: Age and anxiety and depressive symptoms: the effect on domains of quality of life. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2011;26:1260-1266.
Cummings SM, Cockerham C: Depression and life satisfaction in assisted living residents. Clin Gerontol 2004;27:25-42.
Lapid MI, Piderman KM, Ryan SM, Somers KJ, Clark MM, Rummans TA: Improvement of quality of life in hospitalized depressed elderly. Int Psychogeriatr 2011;23:485-495.
McCurren C, Dowe D, Rattle D, Looney S: Depression among nursing home elders: testing an intervention strategy. Appl Nurs Res 1999;12:185-195.
Street H, O'Connor M, Robinson H: Depression in older adults: exploring the relationship between goal setting and physical health. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2007;22:1115-1119.
Wada T, Ishine M, Sakagami T, Okumiya K, Fujisawa M, Murakami S, Otsuka K, Yano S, Kita T, Matsubayashi K: Depression in Japanese community-dwelling elderly - prevalence and association with ADL and QOL. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2004;39:15-23.
Wada T, Ishine M, Sakagami T, Kita T, Okumiya K, Mizuno K, Rambo TA, Matsubayashi K: Depression, activities of daily living, and quality of life of community-dwelling elderly in three Asian countries: Indonesia, Vietnam, and Japan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2005;41:271-280.
Helvik AS, Engedal K, Selbaek G: The quality of life and factors associated with it in the medically hospitalised elderly. Aging Ment Health 2010;14:861-869.
Margis R, Donis KC, Schonwald SV, Rieder CR: WHOQOL-OLD assessment of quality of life in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease: influence of sleep and depressive symptoms. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2010;32:125-131.
Ricarte JJ, Latorre JM, Ros L, Navarro B, Aguilar MJ, Serrano JP: Overgeneral autobiographical memory effect in older depressed adults. Aging Ment Health 2011;15:1028-1037.
Xavier FM, Ferraza MP, Argimon I, Trentini CM, Poyares D, Bertollucci PH, Bisol LW, Moriguchi EH: The DSM-IV ‘minor depression' disorder in the oldest-old: prevalence rate, sleep patterns, memory function and quality of life in elderly people of Italian descent in Southern Brazil. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002;17:107-116.
Zhang JX, Walker JD, Wodchis WP, Hogan DB, Feeny DH, Maxwell CJ: Measuring health status and decline in at-risk seniors residing in the community using Health Utilities Index Mark 2. Qual Life Res 2006;15:1415-1426.
González HM, Bowen ME, Fisher GG: Memory decline and depressive symptoms in a nationally representative sample of older adults: the health and retirement study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;25:266-271.
Djernes JK: Prevalence and predictors of depression in populations of elderly: a review. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;113:372-387.
Van der Weele GM, Gussekloo J, de Waal MW, de Craen AJ, Van der Mast RC: Co-occurrence of depression and anxiety in elderly subjects aged 90 years and its relationship with functional status, quality of life and mortality. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2009;24:595-601.
Bowling A: Measuring Health, ed 3. Maidenhead, Open University Press, 2005.
Wilkinson P, Izmeth Z: Continuation and maintenance treatments for depression in older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;CD006727.
Wilson KC, Mottram PG, Vassilas CA: Psychotherapeutic treatments for older depressed people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;CD004853.
The WHOQOL Group: The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL): position paper from the World Health Organization. Soc Sci Med 1995;41:1401-1409.
Spilker B: Introduction; in Spilker B (ed): Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials. New York, Lippincott-Raven, 1996, pp 1-10.
Stone AA, Mackie C (eds); Panel on Measuring Subjective Well-Being in a Policy-Relevant Framework; Committee on National Statistics; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council: Subjective Well-Being: Measuring Happiness, Suffering, and Other Dimensions of Experience. Washington, National Academies Press, 2013.
Enkvist A, Ekstrom H, Elmstahl S: What factors affect life satisfaction (LS) among the oldest-old? Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2012;54:140-145.
Hasche LK, Morrow-Howell N, Proctor EK: Quality of life outcomes for depressed and nondepressed older adults in community long-term care. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2010;18:544-553.
Helvik AS, Engedal K, Selbaek G: Change in quality of life of medically hospitalized patients - a one-year follow-up study. Aging Ment Health 2013;17:66-76.
Mazumdar S, Reynolds CF III, Houck PR, Frank E, Dew MA, Kupfer DJ: Quality of life in elderly patients with recurrent major depression: a factor analysis of the General Life Functioning Scale. Psychiatry Res 1996;63:183-190.
Preschl B, Maercker A, Wagner B, Forstmeier S, Baños R, Alcañiz M, Castilla D, Botella C: Life-review therapy with computer supplements for depression in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Aging Ment Health 2012;16:964-974.
Solomon R, Kirwin P, Van Ness PH, O'Leary J, Fried TR: Trajectories of quality of life in older persons with advanced illness. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010;58:837-843.
Tatulian SE, Yavorskaya VV, Vasiliev SV, Shustrova GP: The question of research into the quality of life of patients with recurrent depressive disorders in advanced age. Int J Ment Health 2004;33:39-46.
Wang C-C, Tzeng D-S, Chung W-C: The effect of early group psychotherapy on depressive symptoms and quality of life among residents of an apartment building for seniors. Psychogeriatrics 2014;14:38-46.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff JM, Altman DG: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement. Int J Surg 2010;8:336-341.
Licht-Strunk E, van der Windt DA, Van Marwijk HW, De HM, Beekman AT: The prognosis of depression in older patients in general practice and the community. A systematic review. Fam Pract 2007;24:168-180.
Oxman AD: Checklists for review articles. BMJ 1994;309:648-651.
Higgins JPT, Green S: Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.6 (updated September 2006). Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
van Tulder M, Furlan A, Bombardier C, Bouter L: Updated method guidelines for systematic reviews in the Cochrane collaboration back review group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2003;28:1290-1299.
Downs SH, Black N: The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998;52:377-384.
Chan SW, Chien WT, Thompson DR, Chiu HF, Lam L: Quality of life measures for depressed and non-depressed Chinese older people. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;21:1086-1092.
Ni Mhaolain AM, Gallagher D, Connell O, Chin AV, Bruce I, Hamilton F, Teehee E, Coen R, Coakley D, Cunningham C, Walsh JB, Lawlor BA: Subjective well-being amongst community-dwelling elders: what determines satisfaction with life? Findings from the Dublin Healthy Aging Study. Int Psychogeriatr 2012;24:316-323.
Friedman B, Heisel MJ, Delavan RL: Psychometric properties of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in functionally impaired, cognitively intact, community-dwelling elderly primary care patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:1570-1576.
Naumann VJ, Byrne GJ: WHOQOL-BREF as a measure of quality of life in older patients with depression. Int Psychogeriatr 2004;16:159-173.
Scocco P, Fantoni G, Caon F: Role of depressive and cognitive status in self-reported evaluation of quality of life in older people: comparing proxy and physician perspectives. Age Ageing 2006;35:166-171.
Chan SWC, Shoumei JIA, Thompson DR, Yan HU, Chiu HFK, Chien W-T, Lam L: A cross-sectional study on the health related quality of life of depressed Chinese older people in Shanghai. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;21:883-889.
Deslandes AC, Moraes H, Pompeu FAMS, Ribeiro P, Cagy M, Capita C, Alves H, Piedade RAM, Laks J: Electroencephalographic frontal asymmetry and depressive symptoms in the elderly. Biol Psychol 2008;79:317-322.
Dezutter J, Wiesmann U, Apers S, Luyckx K: Sense of coherence, depressive feelings and life satisfaction in older persons: a closer look at the role of integrity and despair. Aging Ment Health 2013;17:839-843.
Diefenbach GJ, Tolin DF, Gilliam CM: Impairments in life quality among clients in geriatric home care: associations with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2012;27:828-835.
Korte JB: Reminiscence and adaptation to critical life events in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Aging Ment Health 2011;15:638-646.
Park JH, Lee JJ, Lee SB, Huh Y, Choi EA, Youn JC, Jhoo JH, Kim JS, Woo JI, Kim KW: Prevalence of major depressive disorder and minor depressive disorder in an elderly Korean population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). J Affect Disord 2010;125:234-240.
Cheng ST, Fung HH, Chan AC: Living status and psychological well-being: social comparison as a moderator in later life. Aging Ment Health 2008;12:654-661.
Doraiswamy PM, Khan ZM, Donahue RMJ, Richard NE: The spectrum of quality-of-life impairments in recurrent geriatric depression. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002;57:134-137.
Dragomirecka E, Bartonova J, Eisemann M, Kalfoss M, Kilian R, Martiny K, von SN, Schmidt S: Demographic and psychosocial correlates of quality of life in the elderly from a cross-cultural perspective. Clin Psychol Psychother 2008;15:193-204.
Flood M: Exploring the relationships between creativity, depression, and successful aging. Activities Adapt Aging 2006;31:55-71.
Garcia-Pena C, Wagner FA, Sanchez-Garcia S, Juarez-Cedillo T, Espinel-Bermudez C, Garcia-Gonzalez JJ, Gallegos-Carrillo K, Franco-Marina F, Gallo JJ: Depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico City. J Gen Intern Med 2008;23:1973-1980.
Ghubach R, El-Rufaie O, Zoubeidi T, Sabri S, Yousif S, Moselhy HF: Subjective life satisfaction and mental disorders among older adults in UAE in general population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2010;25:458-465.
Lee KH, Besthorn FH, Bolin BL, Jun JS: Stress, spiritual, and social support coping, and psychological well-being among older adults in assisted living. J Religion Spirituality Social Work Social Thought 2012;31:328-347.
Minardi HA, Blanchard M: Older people with depression: pilot study. J Adv Nurs 2004;46:23-32.
O'Brien JT, Firbank MJ, Krishnan MS, van Straaten EC, van der Flier WM, Petrovic K, Pantoni L, Simoni M, Erkinjuntti T, Wallin A, Wahlund LO, Inzitari D: White matter hyperintensities rather than lacunar infarcts are associated with depressive symptoms in older people: the LADIS study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;14:834-841.
Rogers A: Factors associated with depression and low life satisfaction in the low-income, frail elderly. J Gerontol Social Work 1999:31;167-194.
Ryu HS, Chang SO, Song JA, Oh Y: Effect of domain-specific life satisfaction on depressive symptoms in late adulthood and old age: results of a cross-sectional descriptive survey. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2013;27:101-107.
Chachamovich E, Fleck M, Laidlaw K, Power M: Impact of major depression and subsyndromal symptoms on quality of life and attitudes toward aging in an international sample of older adults. Gerontologist 2008;48:593-602.
Coleman PG, Philp I, Mullee MA: Does the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale make redundant the need for separate measures of well-being on geriatrics wards? Age Ageing 1995;24:416-420.
Demura S, Sato S: Relationships between depression, lifestyle and quality of life in the community dwelling elderly: a comparison between gender and age groups. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 2003;22:159-166.
Garner C, Bhatia I, Dean M, Byars A: Relationships between measures of meaning, well-being, and depression in an elderly sample. Int Forum Logother 2007;30:73-78.
González-Celis A, Gómez-Benito J: Spirituality and quality of life and its effect on depression in older adults in Mexico. Psychology 2013;4:178-182.
Halvorsrud L, Kirkevold M, Diseth A, Kalfoss M: Quality of life model: predictors of quality of life among sick older adults. Res Theory Nurs Pract 2010;24:241-259.
Netuveli G, Wiggins RD, Hildon Z, Montgomery SM, Blane D: Quality of life at older ages: evidence from the English longitudinal study of aging (wave 1). J Epidemiol Community Health 2006;60:357-363.
Yoon DP, Lee EO: The impact of religiousness, spirituality, and social support on psychological well-being among older adults in rural areas. J Gerontol Social Work 2007;48:281-298.
Galhardo VA, Magalhães MG, Blanes L, Juliano Y, Ferreira LM: Health-related quality of life and depression in older patients with pressure ulcers. Wounds 2010;22:20-26.
Hayes PM, Bernstein I: The Hayes and Lohse Depression Scale. Clin Gerontol 2001;24:39-54.
Lam RE, Pacala JT, Smith SL: Factors related to depressive symptoms in an elderly Chinese American sample. Clin Gerontol 1997;17:57-70.
McCurren CD, Hall LA, Rowles GD: Community elders: prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms. Clin Nurs Res 1993;2:128-144.
Werngren-Elgström M, Dehlin O, Iwarsson S: Aspects of quality of life in persons with prelingual deafness using sign language: subjective wellbeing, ill-health symptoms, depression and insomnia. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2003;37:13-24.
Kemp BJ, Adams BM, Campbell ML: Depression and life satisfaction in aging polio survivors versus age-matched controls: relation to postpolio syndrome, family functioning, and attitude toward disability. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78:187-192.
Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA: Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): Recent Evidence and Development of a Shorter Version. New York, Haworth Press, 1986.
Yesavage JA: Geriatric Depression Scale. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:709-711.
Radloff L: The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1977;1:385-401.
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), ed 4. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Hamilton M: Rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23:56-62.
Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mack J, Erbaugh J: An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:561-571.
Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK: Beck Depression Inventory, ed 2, San Antonio, The Psychological Corporation, 1996.
Zigmond AS, Snaith RP: The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983;67:361-370.
Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, Hergueta T, Baker R, Dunbar GC: The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59(suppl 20):22-33.
Copeland JR, Kelleher MJ, Kellett JM, Gourlay AJ, Gurland BJ, Fleiss JL, Sharpe L: A semi-structured clinical interview for the assessment of diagnosis and mental state in the elderly: the Geriatric Mental State Schedule. I. Development and reliability. Psychol Med 1976;6:439-449.
Montgomery SA, Asberg M: A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry 1979;134:382-389.
Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen HU, Helzer JE, Babor TF, Burke J, Farmer A, Jablenski A, Pickens R, Regier DA: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. An epidemiologic Instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45:1069-1077.
Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan J, Ratcliff KS: National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Its history, characteristics, and validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:381-389.
Prince MJ, Reischies F, Beekman AT, Fuhrer R, Jonker C, Kivela SL, Lawlor BA, Lobo A, Magnusson H, Fichter M, van Oyen H, Roelands M, Skoog I, Turrina C, Copeland JR: Development of the EURO-D scale - a European, Union initiative to compare symptoms of depression in 14 European centres. Br J Psychiatry 1999;174:330-338.
World Health Organization: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010.
Burrows AB, Morris JN, Simon SE, Hirdes JP, Phillips C: Development of a minimum data set-based depression rating scale for use in nursing homes. Age Ageing 2000;29:165-172.
Robinson RG, Kubos KL, Starr LB, Rao K, Price TR: Mood changes in stroke patients: relationship to lesion location. Compr Psychiatry 1983;24:555-566.
Whooley MA, Avins AL, Miranda J, Browner WS: Case-finding instruments for depression. Two questions are as good as many. J Gen Intern Med 1997;12:439-445.
Spitzer RL, Endicott J: Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Lifetime Version. New York, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1978.
Stewart AL, Hays RD, Ware JE Jr: The MOS short-form general health survey. Reliability and validity in a patient population. Med Care 1988;26:724-735.
Ware JE, Nelson EC, Sherbourne DC, Stewart AL: Preliminary tests of a 6-item general health survey: a patient application; in Stewart A, Ware J (eds): Measuring Functioning and Well-Being: The Medical Outcomes Study Approach. Durham, Duke University Press, 1992.
Ware JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD: SF-36 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scores: A User's Manual. Boston, The Health Institute, 1994.
Ware JE, Kosinski M, Dewey JE, et al: How to Score and Interpret Single-Item Health Status Measures: A Manual for Users of SF-8 Item Health Survey. Lincoln, QualityMetric Inc, 2001.
Ware JE, Kosinski M, Turner-Bowker DM, Gandek B: How to Score Version 2 of the SF-12 Health Survey (with a Supplement Documenting Version 1). Lincoln, QualityMetric Inc, 2005.
Adams DL: Analysis of a life satisfaction index. J Gerontol 1969;24:470-474.
Neugarten BL, Havighurst RJ, Tobin SS: The measurement of life satisfaction. J Gerontol 1961;16:134-143.
Wood V, Wylie ML, Sheafor B: An analysis of a short self-report measure of life satisfaction: correlation with rater judgments. J Gerontol 1969;24:465-469.
The WHOQOL Group: Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Assessment. Psychol Med 1998;28:551-558.
Diener E, Emmons RA, Larsen RJ, Griffin S: The Satisfaction with Life Scale. J Pers Assess 1985;49:71-75.
Morrison DP: The Crichton Visual Analogue Scale for the assessment of behaviour in the elderly. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983;68:408-413.
Lawton MP: The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale: a revision. J Gerontol 1975;30:85-89.
The WHOQOL Group: The WHOQOL-OLD Manual. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, 2005.
Cantril H: The Pattern of Human Concern. New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1965.
Hyde M, Wiggins RD, Higgs P, Blane DB: A measure of quality of life in early old age: the theory, development and properties of a needs satisfaction model (CASP-19). Aging Ment Health 2003;7:186-194.
Wiggins RD, Netuveli G, Hyde M, Higgs P, Blane D: The evaluation of a Self-Enumerated Scale of Quality of Life (CASP-19) in the context of research on ageing: a combination of exploratory and confirmatory approaches. Soc Indicators Res 2008;89:61-77.
Beck P: Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. London, Mosby-Wolfe, 1998.
Pfeiffer E: A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1975;23:433-441.
Dupuy HJ: Self-Representations of General Psychological Well-Being of American Adults. Hyattsville, National Centre for Health Statistics, 1978.
Elkin I, Parloff MB, Hadley SW, Autry JH: NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. Background and research plan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:305-316.
Tibblin G, Tibblin B, Peciva S, Kullman S, Svardsudd K: The Göteborg Quality of Life Instrument - an assessment of well-being and symptoms among men born 1913 and 1923. Scand J Prim Health Care 1990;8:33-38.
Torrance GW, Feeny DH, Furlong WJ, Barr RD, Zhang Y, Wang Q: Multiattribute utility function for a comprehensive health status classification system. Health Utilities Index Mark 2. Med Care 1996;34:702-722.
Hablas R, Hutzell R: The Life Purpose Questionnaire: an alternative to the Purpose in Life test for geriatric, neuropsychiatric patients; in Wawrytko SA (ed): Analecta Frankliana. Berkeley, Strawberry Hill, 1982, pp 211-215.
Salamon MJ: Clinical use of the Life Satisfaction in the Elderly Scale. Clin Gerontol 1988;8:45-54.
Priebe S, Huxley P, Knight S, Evans S: Application and results of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). Int J Soc Psychiatry 1999;45:7-12.
Hunt SM, McEwan T: The development of a subjective health indicator. Soc Health Illness 1980;2:231-246.
Pinquart M: Creating and maintaining purpose in life in old age: a meta-analysis. Ageing Int 2002;27:90-114.
McDowell I: General Health Status and Quality of Life; Measuring Health. A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp 520-702.
Sinnige J, Braspenning J, Schellevis F, Stirbu-Wagner I, Westert G, Korevaar J: The prevalence of disease clusters in older adults with multiple chronic diseases - a systematic literature review. PLoS One 2013;8:e79641.
Draper BM: The effectiveness of the treatment of depression in the physically ill elderly. Aging Ment Health 2000;4:9-20.
Park M, Unutzer J: Geriatric depression in primary care. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2011;34:469-487.
Vautier S: Measuring change with multiple visual analogue scales: application to tense arousal. Eur J Psychol Assess 2011;27:111-120.
Lucas-Carrasco R: Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index in elderly. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2012;66:508-513.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.