Introduction: Gait speed (GS) is a predictor of negative outcomes in older adults and in those in risk to develop cognitive impairment; as such, it has been associated with dementia. Studies in Latin-American older adults showing this association are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between GS and dementia in a representative sample of Colombian older adults. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis from the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging, SABE (from initials in Spanish: Salud, Bienestar & Envejecimiento) Colombia’s survey conducted in 2015 with a sample of 23,694 elderly adults aged 60 years or older. Results: A total of 19,470 participants from the SABE Colombia survey were available for analysis. The multivariate analysis shows that dementia was associated with slow GS (PR 2.39; CI 1.91–3.01) independently to the other variables (p < 0.001). Similarly, GS as a continuous variable shows a statistically significant association with dementia in the adjusted analysis (OR 0.06; CI 0.04–0.09; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Dementia was associated with slow GS. This finding provides evidence to include GS as a complementary parameter in the assessment of Colombian elderly adults.

1.
Martin Prince
A
,
Wimo
A
,
Guerchet
M
,
Gemma-Claire Ali
M
,
Wu
Y-T
,
Prina
M
, et al
World Alzheimer Report 2015. The Global Impact of Dementia an AnalysIs of Prevalence, Incidence, Cost and Trends
.
2015
[cited 2017 Dec 20]. Available from: https://www.alz.co.uk/research/WorldAlzheimerReport2015.pdf.
2.
Plassman
BL
,
Williams
JW
 Jr
,
Burke
JR
,
Holsinger
T
,
Benjamin
S
.
NIH conference annals of internal medicine systematic review: factors associated with risk for and possible prevention of cognitive decline in later life
.
Ann Intern Med
.
2009
.
3.
Nitrini
R
,
Bottino
CM
,
Albala
C
,
Custodio Capuñay
NS
,
Ketzoian
C
,
Llibre Rodriguez
JJ
, et al
Prevalence of dementia in Latin America: a collaborative study of population-based cohorts
.
Int Psychogeriatr
.
2009 Aug
;
21
(
4
):
622
. .
4.
Prince
M
,
Acosta
D
,
Ferri
CP
,
Guerra
M
,
Huang
Y
,
Llibre Rodriguez
JJ
, et al
Dementia incidence and mortality in middle-income countries, and associations with indicators of cognitive reserve: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study
.
Lancet
.
2012 Jul
;
380
(
9836
):
50
8
. .
5.
Clare
L
,
Wu
YT
,
Teale
JC
,
MacLeod
C
,
Matthews
F
,
Brayne
C
, et al
Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: a cross-sectional study
.
PLoS Med
.
2017 Mar
;
14
(
3
):
e1002259
. .
6.
Darwish
H
,
Farran
N
,
Assaad
S
,
Chaaya
M
.
Cognitive reserve factors in a developing country: education and occupational attainment lower the risk of dementia in a sample of lebanese older adults
.
Front Aging Neurosci
.
2018 Sep 18
;
10
:
277
. .
7.
Satizabal
CL
,
Beiser
AS
,
Chouraki
V
,
Chêne
G
,
Dufouil
C
,
Seshadri
S
.
Incidence of dementia over three decades in the Framingham Heart Study
.
N Engl J Med
.
2016 Jul
;
374
(
6
):
523
32
. .
8.
Prince
M
,
Ali
GC
,
Guerchet
M
,
Prina
AM
,
Albanese
E
,
Wu
YT
.
Recent global trends in the prevalence and incidence of dementia, and survival with dementia
.
Alzheimers Res Ther
.
2016 Dec
;
8
(
1
):
23
. .
9.
Norris
ET
,
Wang
L
,
Conley
AB
,
Rishishwar
L
,
Mariño-Ramírez
L
,
Valderrama-Aguirre
A
, et al
Genetic ancestry, admixture and health determinants in Latin America
.
BMC Genomics
.
2018
;
19
(
Suppl 8
):
861
. .
10.
Farrer
LA
,
Cupples
LA
,
Haines
JL
,
Hyman
B
,
Kukull
WA
,
Mayeux
R
, et al
Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis
.
J Am Med Assoc
.
1997
;
278
(
16
):
1349
56
.
11.
Ramirez Aguilar
L
,
Acosta-Uribe
J
,
Giraldo
MM
,
Moreno
S
,
Baena
A
,
Alzate
D
, et al
Genetic origin of a large family with a novel PSEN1 mutation (Ile416Thr)
.
Alzheimers Dement
.
2019
;
15
(
5
):
709
19
. .
12.
Lopera
F
,
Ardilla
A
,
Martínez
A
,
Madrigal
L
,
Arango-Viana
JC
,
Lemere
CA
, et al
Clinical features of early-onset Alzheimer disease in a large kindred with an E280A presenilin-1 mutation
.
JAMA
.
1997
;
277
(
10
):
793
9
. .
13.
Garcia-Pinillos
F
,
Cozar-Barba
M
,
Munoz-Jimenez
M
,
Soto-Hermoso
V
,
Latorre-Roman
P
.
Gait speed in older people: an easy test for detecting cognitive impairment, functional independence, and health state
.
Psychogeriatrics
.
2016 May
;
16
(
3
):
165
71
. .
14.
Van Kan
GA
,
Rolland
Y
,
Gillette-Guyonnet
S
,
Gardette
V
,
Annweiler
C
,
Beauchet
O
, et al
Gait speed, body composition, and dementia. The EPIDOS-toulouse cohort
.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
.
2012 Apr
;
67
(
4
):
425
32
.
15.
Inzitari
M
,
Newman
AB
,
Yaffe
K
,
Boudreau
R
,
De Rekeneire
N
,
Shorr
R
, et al
Gait speed predicts decline in attention and psychomotor speed in older adults: the health aging and body composition study
.
Neuroepidemiology
.
2008
;
29
(
3–4
):
156
62
. .
16.
Bramell-Risberg
E
,
Jarnlo
GB
,
Minthon
L
,
Elmståhl
S
.
Lower gait speed in older women with dementia compared with controls
.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
.
2005
;
20
(
5
):
298
305
. .
17.
Hausdorff
JM
,
Buchman
AS
.
What links gait speed and MCI with dementia? A fresh look at the association between motor and cognitive function
.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
.
2013 Apr
;
68
(
4
):
409
11
. .
18.
Aggarwal
NT
,
Wilson
RS
,
Beck
TL
,
Bienias
JL
,
Bennett
DA
.
Motor dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease
.
Arch Neurol
.
2006 Dec
;
63
(
12
):
1763
9
. .
19.
Ayers
E
,
Verghese
J
.
Gait dysfunction in motoric cognitive risk syndrome
.
J Alzheimers Dis
.
2019
;
71
(
s1
):
S95
103
. .
20.
Verghese
J
,
Wang
C
,
Bennett
DA
,
Lipton
RB
,
Katz
MJ
,
Ayers
E
.
Motoric cognitive risk syndrome and predictors of transition to dementia: a multicenter study
.
Alzheimers Dement
.
2019
;
15
(
7
):
870
7
. .
21.
Verghese
J
,
Annweiler
C
,
Ayers
E
,
Barzilai
N
,
Beauchet
O
,
Bennett
DA
, et al
Motoric cognitive risk syndrome: multicountry prevalence and dementia risk
.
Neurology
.
2014 Aug
;
83
(
8
):
718
26
. .
22.
Aguilar-Navarro
SG
,
Mimenza-Alvarado
AJ
,
Aguilar-Esquivel
JE
,
Yeverino-Castro
SG
,
Juárez-Cedillo
T
,
Mejía-Arango
S
.
Motoric cognitive risk syndrome: prevalence and risk of cognitive impairment in a population studied in the Mexican health and aging study 2012–2015
.
J Nutr Heal Aging
.
2019
;
23
(
3
):
227
31
.
23.
Gray
WK
,
Richardson
J
,
McGuire
J
,
Dewhurst
F
,
Elder
V
,
Weeks
J
, et al
Frailty screening in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review
.
J Am Geriatr Soc
.
2016
;
64
(
4
):
806
23
. .
24.
Malmstrom
TK
,
Miller
DK
,
Morley
JE
.
A comparison of four frailty models
.
J Am Geriatr Soc
.
2014
;
62
(
4
):
721
6
. .
25.
Pritchard
JM
,
Kennedy
CC
,
Karampatos
S
,
Ioannidis
G
,
Misiaszek
B
,
Marr
S
, et al
Measuring frailty in clinical practice: a comparison of physical frailty assessment methods in a geriatric out-patient clinic
.
BMC Geriatr
.
2017
;
17
(
1
):
264
8
. .
26.
Montero-Odasso
M
,
Camicioli
R
,
Muir-Hunter
SW
.
Dual-task gait and incident dementia: a step forward, but not there yet-reply
.
JAMA Neurol
.
2017 Oct
;
74
(
11
):
1380
. .
27.
Montero-Odasso
M
,
Hachinski
V
.
Preludes to brain failure: executive dysfunction and gait disturbances
.
Neurol Sci
.
2014
;
35
(
4
):
601
4
. .
28.
Montero-Odasso
M
,
Oteng-Amoako
A
,
Speechley
M
,
Gopaul
K
,
Beauchet
O
,
Annweiler
C
, et al
The motor signature of mild cognitive impairment: results from the gait and brain study
.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
.
2014
;
69
(
11
):
1415
21
. .
29.
Montero-Odasso
M
,
Bergman
H
,
Phillips
NA
,
Wong
CH
,
Sourial
N
,
Chertkow
H
.
Dual-tasking and gait in people with mild cognitive impairment. The effect of working memory
.
BMC Geriatr
.
2009
;
9
:
41
. .
30.
Montero-Odasso
M
,
Pieruccini-Faria
F
,
Bartha
R
,
Black
SE
,
Finger
E
,
Freedman
M
, et al
Motor phenotype in neurodegenerative disorders: gait and balance platform study design protocol for the Ontario Neurodegenerative Research Initiative (ONDRI)
.
J Alzheimers Dis
.
2017
;
59
(
2
):
707
21
. .
31.
Annweiler
C
,
Beauchet
O
,
Bartha
R
,
Wells
JL
,
Borrie
MJ
,
Hachinski
V
, et al
Motor cortex and gait in mild cognitive impairment: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy and volumetric imaging study
.
Brain
.
2013
;
136
(
Pt 3
):
859
71
. .
32.
Montero-Odasso
M
,
Muir
SW
,
Speechley
M
.
Dual-task complexity affects gait in people with mild cognitive impairment: the interplay between gait variability, dual tasking, and risk of falls
.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
.
2012
;
93
(
2
):
293
9
. .
33.
Bragatto
VSR
,
Andrade
LPd
,
Rossi
PG
,
Ansai
JH
.
Dual-task during gait between elderly with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer: systematic review
.
Fisioter mov
.
2017
;
30
(
4
):
849
57
. .
34.
Allan
LM
,
Ballard
CG
,
Burn
DJ
,
Kenny
RA
.
Prevalence and severity of gait disorders in Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimer’s dementias
.
J Am Geriatr Soc
.
2005
;
53
(
10
):
1681
7
. .
35.
Albala
C
,
Lebrão
ML
,
León Díaz
EM
,
Ham-Chande
R
,
Hennis
AJ
,
Palloni
A
, et al
[The Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey: methodology applied and profile of the study population]
.
Rev Panam Salud Publica
.
2005
;
17
(
5–6
):
307
22
.
36.
Gomez
F
,
Corchuelo
J
,
Curcio
CL
,
Calzada
MT
,
Mendez
F
.
SABE Colombia: survey on health, well-being, and aging in Colombia: study design and protocol
.
Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res
.
2016 Nov
:
1
7
.
37.
Gómez Montes
JF
,
Curcio
C-L
,
Alvarado
B
,
Zunzunegui
MV
,
Guralnik
J
.
Validity and reliability of the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB): a pilot study on mobility in the Colombian Andes
.
Colomb Med
.
2013
;
44
:
165
71
.
38.
Ramírez-Vélez
R
,
Pérez-Sousa
MA
,
Venegas-Sanabria
LC
,
Cano-Gutierrez
CA
,
Hernández-Quiñonez
PA
,
Rincón-Pabón
D
, et al
Normative values for the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and their association with anthropometric variables in older colombian adults. The SABE study, 2015
.
Front Med
.
2020 Feb
;
7
:
52
. .
39.
Luck
T
,
Luppa
M
,
Wiese
B
,
Maier
W
,
van den Bussche
H
,
Eisele
M
, et al
Prediction of incident dementia: impact of impairment in instrumental activities of daily living and mild cognitive impairment-results from the german study on ageing, cognition, and dementia in primary care patients
.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
.
2012
;
20
(
11
):
943
54
. .
40.
Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social, Colciencias. Estudio Nacional de salud, bienestar Y envejecimiento SABE Colombia 2015. Resumen Ejecutivo. Minsalud. 2015 [cited 2017 Dec 20];1–11
.
41.
Grant
RL
.
Converting an odds ratio to a range of plausible relative risks for better communication of research findings
.
BMJ
.
2014 Jan 24
;
348
:
f7450
.
42.
Hackett
RA
,
Davies-Kershaw
H
,
Cadar
D
,
Orrell
M
,
Steptoe
A
.
Walking speed, cognitive function, and dementia risk in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
.
J Am Geriatr Soc
.
2018
;
66
(
9
):
1670
5
. .
43.
Sakurai
R
,
Bartha
R
,
Montero-Odasso
M
,
Newman
A
.
Entorhinal cortex volume is associated with dual-task gait cost among older adults with MCI: results from the Gait and Brain Study
.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
.
2019 Apr 23
;
74
(
5
):
698
704
.
44.
Wirtshafter
HS
,
Wilson
MA
.
Locomotor and hippocampal processing converge in the lateral septum
.
Curr Biol
.
2019
;
29
(
19
):
3177
92.e3
. .
45.
Bender
F
,
Gorbati
M
,
Cadavieco
MC
,
Denisova
N
,
Gao
X
,
Holman
C
, et al
Theta oscillations regulate the speed of locomotion via a hippocampus to lateral septum pathway
.
Nat Commun
.
2015 Oct 12
;
6
:
8521
11
. .
46.
Kim
O
,
Song
J
.
The role of Irisin in Alzheimer’s disease
.
J Clin Med
.
2018
;
7
(
11
):
407
. .
47.
Kiselev
J
,
Nuritdinow
T
,
Spira
D
,
Buchmann
N
,
Steinhagen-Thiessen
E
,
Lederer
C
, et al
Long-term gait measurements in daily life: results from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II)
.
PLoS One
.
2019
;
14
(
12
):
1
13
.
48.
Oliveira
LM
,
Nitrini
R
,
Román
GC
.
Normal-pressure hydrocephalus: a critical review
.
Dement Neuropsychol
.
2019 Apr–Jun
;
13
(
2
):
133
43
. .
49.
Williams
MA
,
Malm
J
.
Diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
.
Continuum
.
2016 Apr
;
22
(
2 Dementia
):
579
99
. .
50.
Fonseca Alves
DJ
,
Bartholomeu-Neto
J
,
Júnior
ER
,
Ribeiro Zarricueta
BS
,
Nóbrega
OT
,
Córdova
C
.
Walking speed, risk factors, and cardiovascular events in older adults-systematic review
.
J Strength Cond Res
.
2017
;
31
(
11
):
3235
44
. .
51.
Allet
L
,
Armand
S
,
De Bie
RA
,
Golay
A
,
Monnin
D
,
Aminian
K
, et al
The gait and balance of patients with diabetes can be improved: a randomised controlled trial
.
Diabetologia
.
2010
;
53
(
3
):
458
66
. .
52.
Sekhon
H
,
Allali
G
,
Beauchet
O
.
The association of anxio-depressive disorders and depression with motoric cognitive risk syndrome: results from the baseline assessment of the Canadian longitudinal study on aging
.
Geroscience
.
2019
;
41
(
4
):
409
18
. .
53.
Beauchet
E
,
Jouvent
R
,
Herrmann
FR
,
Perez-Diaz
F
,
Lallart
X
,
Beauchet
O
, et al
Gait control and executive dysfunction in early schizophrenia
.
J Neural Transm
.
2013
;
121
(
4
):
443
50
. .
54.
Kuspinar
A
,
Verschorr
C
,
Beauchamp
M
,
Dushoff
J
,
Ma
J
,
Amster
E
, et al
Modifiable factors related to life-space mobility in community: dwelling older adults: results from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging
.
BMC Geriatr
.
2020
;
20
(
1
):
35
.
55.
Sala
G
,
Jopp
D
,
Gobet
F
,
Ogawa
M
,
Ishioka
Y
,
Masui
Y
, et al
The impact of leisure activities on older adults’ cognitive function, physical function, and mental health
.
PLoS One
.
2019
;
14
(
11
):
e0225006
. .
56.
Ganguli
M
,
Vander Bilt
J
,
Saxton
A
,
Shen
C
,
Dodge
H
.
Alcohol consumption and cognitive function in late life. A longitudinal community study
.
Am Acad Neurol
.
2005
;
65
(
8
):
1210
7
.
57.
Anstey
KJ
,
Mack
HA
,
Cherbuin
N
.
Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: meta-analysis of prospective studies
.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
.
2009
;
17
(
7
):
542
55
. .
58.
Downer
B
,
Jiang
Y
,
Zanjani
F
,
Fardo
D
.
Effects of alcohol consumption on cognition and regional brain volumes among older adults
.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen
.
2015
;
30
(
4
):
364
74
. .
59.
Piguet
O
,
Cramsie
J
,
Bennett
HP
,
Kril
JJ
,
Lye
TC
,
Corbett
AJ
, et al
Contributions of age and alcohol consumption to cerebellar integrity, gait and cognition in non-demented very old individuals
.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
.
2006
;
256
(
8
):
504
11
. .
60.
De La Monte
SM
,
Kril
JJ
.
Human alcohol-related neuropathology
.
2014
.
61.
Verghese
J
,
Wang
C
,
Lipton
RB
,
Holtzer
R
.
Motoric cognitive risk syndrome and the risk of dementia
.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
.
2013
;
68
(
4
):
412
8
. .
62.
Aguilar-Navarro
S
,
Mimenza-Alvarado
A
,
Aguilar-Esquivel
J
,
Yeverino-Castro
S
,
Juarez-Cedillo
T
,
Mejía-Arango
S
.
Motoric cognitve risk syndrome: prevalence and risk of cognitive impairment in a population studied in the Mexican health and ageing study 2012–2015
.
J Nutr Health Aging
.
2019
;
23
:
227
31
.
63.
Verghese
J
,
Annweiler
C
,
Ayers
E
,
Barzilai
N
,
Beauchet
O
,
Bennett
DA
, et al
Motoric cognitive risk syndrome: multicountry prevalence and dementia risk
.
Neurology
.
2014
;
83
(
8
):
718
26
. .
64.
Montero-Odasso
M
,
Speechley
M
,
Muir-Hunter
SW
,
Sarquis-Adamson
Y
,
Sposato
LA
,
Hachinski
V
, et al
Motor and cognitive trajectories before dementia: results from gait and brain study
.
J Am Geriatr Soc
.
2018
;
66
(
9
):
1676
83
. .
65.
Hornyak
V
,
Vanswearingen
JM
,
Brach
JS
.
Measurement of gait speed
.
Top Geriatr Rehabil
.
2012
;
28
(
1
):
27
32
. .
66.
Tian
Q
,
Resnick
SM
,
Mielke
MM
,
Yaffe
K
,
Launer
LJ
,
Jonsson
PV
, et al
Association of dual decline in memory and gait speed with risk for dementia among adults older than 60 years: a multicohort individual-level meta-analysis
.
JAMA Netw Open
.
2020
;
3
(
2
):
e1921636
. .
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.