Aims: We investigated whether the longitudinal relationship between history of stroke and subsequent decline in executive functioning over 6 years differed by cognitive reserve. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal data from 897 older adults (mean age, 74.33 years) tested on the Trail Making Test (TMT) in two waves 6 years apart. Participants reported information on key frequently used proxies of lifelong cognitive reserve accumulation (i.e., education, occupation, and leisure activity engagement), and history of stroke. Results: There was a significant interaction of stroke with leisure activity engagement on latent change in executive functioning. Specifically, only for individuals with low (but not those with high) leisure activity engagement, history of stroke significantly predicted a steeper subsequent decline in executive functioning across 6 years (i.e., increases in TMT completion time). Conclusion: The detrimental aftereffects of stroke on subsequent decline in executive functioning may be attenuated in individuals who have accumulated greater cognitive reserve through leisure activity engagement across their life.

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