Background/Aims: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is defined as functionally relevant cognitive decline with age of onset at less than 65 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the recently validated third version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) in predicting dementia diagnoses in EOD. Methods: ACE-III scores of EOD patients were compared to those of healthy controls (HC) and individuals with subjective memory impairment (SMI). Results: The study included 71 EOD patients (Alzheimer's disease, n = 31; primary progressive aphasia, n = 11; behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 18, and posterior cortical atrophy, n = 11); there were 28 HC and 15 individuals with SMI. At a cut-off score of 88/100, the ACE-III displayed high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing EOD from HC (91.5 and 96.4%) and SMI (91.5 and 86.7%). Conclusions: The ACE-III is a reliable cognitive screening tool in EOD.

Fadil H, Borazanci A, Ait Ben Haddou E, Yahyaoui M, Korniychuk E, Jaffe SL, Minagar A: Early onset dementia. Int Rev Neurobiol 2009;84:245-262.
Stewart R: Subjective cognitive impairment. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2012;25:445-450.
Ritchie CW, Terrera GM, Quinn TJ: Dementia trials and dementia tribulations: methodological and analytical challenges in dementia research. Alzheimers Res Ther 2015;7:31.
Hsieh S, Schubert S, Hoon C, Mioshi E, Hodges JR: Validation of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2013;36:242-250.
Jubb MT, Evans JJ: An Investigation of the Utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III in the Early Detection of Dementia in Memory Clinic Patients Aged over 75 Years. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2015;40:222-232.
Rascovsky K, Hodges JR, Knopman D, Mendez MF, Kramer JH, Neuhaus J, van Swieten JC, Seelaar H, Dopper EG, Onyike CU, Hillis AE, Josephs KA, Boeve BF, Kertesz A, Seeley WW, Rankin KP, Johnson JK, Gorno-Tempini ML, Rosen H, Prioleau-Latham CE, Lee A, Kipps CM, Lillo P, Piguet O, Rohrer JD, Rossor MN, Warren JD, Fox NC, Galasko D, Salmon DP, Black SE, Mesulam M, Weintraub S, Dickerson BC, Diehl-Schmid J, Pasquier F, Deramecourt V, Lebert F, Pijnenburg Y, Chow TW, Manes F, Grafman J, Cappa SF, Freedman M, Grossman M, Miller BL: Sensitivity of revised diagnostic criteria for the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia. Brain 2011;134:2456-2477.
Gorno-Tempini ML, Hillis AE, Weintraub S, Kertesz A, Mendez M, Cappa SF, Ogar JM, Rohrer JD, Black S, Boeve BF, Manes F, Dronkers NF, Vandenberghe R, Rascovsky K, Patterson K, Miller BL, Knopman DS, Hodges JR, Mesulam MM, Grossman M. Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants. Neurology 2011;76:1006-1014.
McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, Hyman BT, Jack CR Jr, Kawas CH, Klunk WE, Koroshetz WJ, Manly JJ, Mayeux R, Mohs RC, Morris JC, Rossor MN, Scheltens P, Carrillo MC, Thies B, Weintraub S, Phelps CH: The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7:263-269.
Piguet O, Hornberger M, Mioshi E, Hodges JR: Behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia: diagnosis, clinical staging, and management. Lancet Neurol 2011;10:162-172.
Swan A, Waddell B, Holloway G, et al: The diagnostic utility of 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging: a retrospective case series from a tertiary referral early-onset cognitive disorders clinic. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2015;39:186-193.
Hong YJ, Yoon B, Shim YS, et al: Predictors of Clinical Progression of Subjective Memory Impairment in Elderly Subjects: Data from the Clinical Research Centers for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS). Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2015;40:158-165.
Snowden J, Neary D, Mann D: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: clinical and pathological relationships. Acta Neuropathol 2007;114:31-38.
Royall DR, Lauterbach EC, Cummings JL, Reeve A, Rummans TA, Kaufer DI, LaFrance WC Jr, Coffey CE: Executive control function: a review of its promise and challenges for clinical research. A report from the Committee on Research of the American Neuropsychiatric Association. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002;14:377-405.
Torralva T, Roca M, Gleichgerrcht E, Bekinschtein T, Manes F: A neuropsychological battery to detect specific executive and social cognitive impairments in early frontotemporal dementia. Brain 2009;132:1299-1309.
Gleichgerrcht E, Torralva T, Roca M, Manes F: Utility of an abbreviated version of the executive and social cognition battery in the detection of executive deficits in early behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia patients. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2010;16:687-694.
Yew B, Alladi S, Shailaja M, Hodges JR, Hornberger M: Lost and forgotten? Orientation versus memory in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. J Alzheimers Dis 2013;33:473-481.
Ye BS, Choi SH, Han SH, et al: Clinical and Neuropsychological Comparisons of Early-Onset Versus Late-Onset Frontotemporal Dementia: A CREDOS-FTD Study. J Alzheimers Dis 2015;45:599-608.
Abrahams S, Goldstein LH, Simmons A, Brammer M, Williams SC, Giampietro V, Leigh PN: Word retrieval in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Brain 2004;127:1507-1517.
Bak TH, Crawford LM, Hearn VC, Mathuranath PS, Hodges JR: Subcortical dementia revisited: similarities and differences in cognitive function between progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Neurocase 2005;11:268-273.
Rascovsky K, Salmon DP, Hansen LA, Thal LJ, Galasko D: Disparate letter and semantic category fluency deficits in autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology 2007;21:20-30.
Mendez MF, Lee AS, Joshi A, Shapira JS: Nonamnestic presentations of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2012;27:413-420.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.