Background/Aims: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) comprises three main subtypes, varying in clinical features, patterns of brain atrophy, and underlying pathology. Differentiation of these variants is important for treatment and planning; however, simple, effective cognitive tests to aid diagnosis are lacking. This study introduces a new language battery - the SYDBAT (Sydney Language Battery) - to assist clinicians. Methods: Fifty-seven PPA patients and 54 age- and education-matched healthy controls were compared on naming, repetition, word comprehension, and semantic association subtests. Results: Significant group differences were found for all tasks, reflecting different language profiles for each group. Using discriminative function analysis, 80% of PPA cases were correctly classified from three SYDBAT scores, from which a simple diagnostic algorithm was defined. Conclusion: The SYDBAT is a fast and simple tool which provides a valuable adjunct to clinicians diagnosing PPA.

Gorno-Tempini ML, Hillis AE, Weintraub S, Kertesz A, Mendez M, Cappa SF, Ogar JM, Rohrer JD, Black S, Boeve BF, Manes F, Dronkers NF, Vandenberghe R, Rascovsky K, Patterson K, Miller BL, Knopman DS, Hodges JR, Mesulam M, Grossman M: Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants. Neurology 2011;76:1006-1014.
Gorno‐Tempini ML, Dronkers NF, Rankin KP, Ogar JM, Phengrasamy L, Rosen HJ, Johnson JK, Weiner MW, Miller BL: Cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Ann Neurol 2004;55:335-346.
Hodges JR, Patterson K: Nonfluent progressive aphasia and semantic dementia: a comparative neuropsychological study. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 1996;2:511-524.
Turner RS, Kenyon LC, Trojanowski JQ, Gonatas N, Grossman M: Clinical, neuroimaging, and pathologic features of progressive nonfluent aphasia. Ann Neurol 1996;39:166-173.
Grossman M, Mickanin J, Onishi K, Hughes E, D'Esposito M, Ding X-S, Alavi A, Reivich M: Progressive nonfluent aphasia: language, cognitive, and PET measures contrasted with probable Alzheimer's disease. J Cogn Neurosci 1996;8:135-154.
Nestor PJ, Graham NL, Fryer TD, Williams GB, Patterson K, Hodges JR: Progressive non-fluent aphasia is associated with hypometabolism centred on the left anterior insula. Brain 2003;126:2406-2418.
Ogar JM, Dronkers NF, Brambati SM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML: Progressive nonfluent aphasia and its characteristic motor speech deficits. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2007;21:S23-S30.
McMillan C, Gee J, Moore P, Dennis K, DeVita C, Grossman M: Confrontation naming and morphometric analyses of structural MRI in frontotemporal dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;17:320-323.
Garrard P, Carroll E, Vinson D, Vigliocco G: Dissociation of lexical syntax and semantics: evidence from focal cortical degeneration. Neurocase 2004;10:353-362.
Hodges JR, Martinos M, Woollams AM, Patterson K, Adlam LR: Repeat and Point: differentiating semantic dementia from progressive non-fluent aphasia. Cortex 2008;44:1265-1270.
Hodges JR, Patterson K: Semantic dementia: a unique clinicopathological syndrome. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:1004-1014.
Hodges JR, Patterson K, Oxbury S, Funnell E: Semantic dementia: progressive fluent aphasia with temporal lobe atrophy. Brain 1992;115:1783-1806.
Snowden JS: Semantic dysfunction in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 1999;10:33-36.
Chan D, Fox NC, Scahill RI, Crum WR, Whitwell JL, Leschziner G, Rossor AM, Stevens JM, Cipolotti L, Rossor MN: Patterns of temporal lobe atrophy in semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 2001;49:433-442.
Rohrer JD, McNaught E, Foster J, Clegg SL, Barnes J, Omar R, Warrington EK, Rossor MN, Warren JD, Fox NC: Tracking progression in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: serial MRI in semantic dementia. Neurology 2008;71:1445-1451.
Rosen HJ, Gorno-Tempini ML, Goldman WP, Perry RJ, Schuff N, Weiner M, Feiwell R, Kramer JH, Miller BL: Patterns of brain atrophy in frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia. Neurology 2002;58:198-208.
Gorno-Tempini ML, Brambati SM, Ginex V, Ogar J, Dronkers NF, Marcone A, Perani D, Garibotto V, Cappa SF, Miller BL: The logopenic/phonological variant of primary progressive aphasia. Neurology 2008;71:1227-1234.
Leyton CE, Piguet O, Savage S, Burrell J, Hodges JR: The neural basis of logopenic progressive aphasia. J Alzheimers Dis 2012:32:1051-1059.
Rohrer JD, Ridgway GR, Crutch SJ, Hailstone J, Goll JC, Clarkson MJ, Mead S, Beck J, Mummery C, Ourselin S, Warrington EK, Rossor MN, Warren JD: Progressive logopenic/phonological aphasia: erosion of the language network. Neuroimage 2010;49:984-993.
Knibb JA, Xuereb JH, Patterson K, Hodges JR: Clinical and pathological characterization of progressive aphasia. Ann Neurol 2006;59:156-165.
Leyton CE, Villemagne VL, Savage S, Pike KE, Ballard KJ, Piguet O, Burrell JR, Rowe CC, Hodges JR: Subtypes of progressive aphasia: application of the international consensus criteria and validation using β-amyloid imaging. Brain 2011;134:3030-3043.
Mesulam M, Wicklund A, Johnson N, Rogalski E, Léger GC, Rademaker A, Weintraub S, Bigio EH: Alzheimer and frontotemporal pathology in subsets of primary progressive aphasia. Ann Neurol 2008;63:709-719.
Rabinovici GD, Jagust WJ, Furst AJ, Ogar JM, Racine CA, Mormino EC, O'Neil JP, Lal RA, Dronkers NF, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML: Abeta amyloid and glucose metabolism in three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Ann Neurol 2008;64:388-401.
Kaplan E, Goodglass H, Weintraub S, Goodglass H: Boston Naming Test. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1983.
Mesulam M: Primary progressive aphasia - a language-based dementia. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1535-1542.
Kertesz A: Western Aphasia Battery. London, University of Western Ontario, 1980.
Kay J, Coltheart M, Lesser R: PALPA: Psycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia. New York, Psychology Press, 1992.
Howard D, Patterson K: Pyramids and Palm Trees: a test of semantic access from pictures and words. Bury St Edmunds, Thames Valley Test Company, 1992.
Adlam LR, Patterson K, Bozeat S, Hodges JR: The Cambridge Semantic Memory Test Battery: detection of semantic deficits in semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurocase 2010;16:193-207.
Mioshi E, Dawson K, Mitchell J, Arnold R, Hodges JR: The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R): a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;21:1078-1085.
Leyton CE, Hornberger M, Mioshi E, Hodges JR: Application of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination to diagnosis and monitoring of progressive primary aphasia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disorder 2010;29:504-509.
Meyers JE, Meyers KR: Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial: Professional Manual. Odessa, Psychological Assessment Resources, 1995.
Tombaugh TN: Trail Making Test A and B: normative data stratified by age and education. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2004;19:203-214.
Strauss E, Sherman EM, Spreen O: A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary, ed 3. New York, Oxford University Press, 2006.
Wechsler D: WAIS-III administration and scoring manual. San Antonio, The Psychological Corporation, 1997.
Mack WJ, Freed DM, Williams BW, Henderson VW: Boston Naming Test: shortened versions for use in Alzheimer's disease. J Gerontol 1992;47:P154-P158.
Wilson SM, Henry ML, Besbris M, Ogar JM, Dronkers NF, Jarrold W, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML: Connected speech production in three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Brain 2010;133:2069-2088.
Croot K, Patterson K, Hodges JR: Single word production in nonfluent progressive aphasia. Brain Lang 1998;61:226-273.
Graham NL, Patterson K, Hodges JR: When more yields less: speaking and writing deficits in nonfluent progressive aphasia. Neurocase 2004;10:141-155.
Mesulam M, Wieneke C, Rogalski E, Cobia D, Thompson C, Weintraub S: Quantitative template for subtyping primary progressive aphasia. Arch Neurol 2009;66:1545-1551.
Sajjadi SA, Patterson K, Arnold RJ, Watson PC, Nestor PJ: Primary progressive aphasia: a tale of two syndromes and the rest. Neurology 2012;78:1670-1677.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.