Aims: To investigate, in a group of subjects with cognitive impairment, the relationship between anosognosia, in each dimension of insight, and neuropsychological domains. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one subjects affected by cognitive impairment were consecutively enrolled. Anosognosia was evaluated by means of the Clinical Insight Rating Scale (CIRS). The general level of cognitive impairment was evaluated by means of the Mini-Mental State Examination, while 8 cognitive domains were examined by means of neuropsychological tests. Results: The number of subjects with anosognosia evaluated by means of the CIRS total score as well as those with anosognosia divided according to the reason for visit was higher in moderately cognitively impaired subjects than in mildly cognitively impaired subjects (p < 0.001). A relationship between anosognosia and neuropsychological scores was only found in mild cognitive impairment, with subjects with anosognosia displaying significantly lower Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-delayed recall scores than subjects without anosognosia. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the relationship between the severity of cognitive deficits and anosognosia in subjects with cognitive impairment is partial and depends on the specific domain of unawareness. Furthermore, in the early phase of cognitive impairment, the presence of specific cognitive deficits suggests that the nature of anosognosia is domain-specific.

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