Background/Aims: Detection and differentiation of neurodegenerative dementias, such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with blood-based biomarkers would facilitate diagnosis and treatment. Methods: By use of a commercially available ELISA kit, we measured α-synuclein levels in the serum of 40 DLB patients and controls, and of 80 AD patients. Results: We found significantly reduced α-synuclein serum levels in DLB compared to both AD (p = 0.006) and control subjects (p = 0.001), reaching an area under the curve of >0.70. Conclusion: Although these results do not justify a definition of serum α-synuclein as a potential single biomarker, results may contribute to a multimarker strategy in DLB diagnosis.

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