The following areas are discussed in this review: atherogenesis; cerebrovascular factors; hypoperfusion; β-amyloid production; β-amyloid fibril formation; β-sheets; metal cations; reactive oxygen species/free radicals; chronic inflammatory factors; endogenous plasma heparin; lipoprotein lipase; polyamines; protein kinase C; casein kinases; phospholipase A2; serine proteases; myeloperoxidase; cyclooxygenase 2; cysteine proteases; caspases; proprotein convertases; aspartic proteases; cyclin proteinases; thrombin; tau hyperphosphorylation; advanced glycosylation end products; activator protein 1; calcium; apolipoprotein E Ε4; histamine; blood-brain barrier; glutamate; transglutaminase; insulin-like growth factor 1.

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