Background:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common chronic bacterial infection. Treatment effectiveness remains a subject of debate considering bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Our aim was to analyze the diagnostic methods and eradication treatments for H. pylori infection in Serbia. Methods: An observational multicenter prospective study was conducted in Serbia, as part of the European Registry on H. pylori Management (Hp-EuReg). Demographics, treatment indication, diagnostic methods, previous eradication attempts, and treatment were collected at AEG-REDCap e-CRF. Modified intention-to-treat (mITT) and per-protocol (PP) effectiveness analyses were performed. Safety, compliance, and bacterial antimicrobial resistance rates were reported. Data were quality checked. Results: Overall, 283 patients were included, with a mean age of 55 ± 15 years. Dyspepsia (n = 214, 77%) was the most frequent treatment indication, and histology (n = 144, 51%) was the most used diagnostic method. Overall eradication rate was 95% (PP) and 94% (mITT). Most prevalent first-line therapy was quadruple PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin + metronidazole, with a 96% effectiveness (p < 0.001). Second-line main treatment choice was triple amoxicillin + levofloxacin, with a 95% effectiveness (p < 0.05). Single-capsule Pylera® was the most prescribed third-line therapy, with 100% effectiveness (p < 0.05). Longer treatment duration was associated with a higher eradication rate in first-line therapy (p < 0.05). Clarithromycin and quinolone resistance rates in first-line were 24% and 8.3%, respectively. The overall adverse events’ incidence rate was 13.4%, and therapy compliance was 97%. Conclusions: Considering the high eradication rate, 14-day non-bismuth quadruple concomitant therapy is a reasonable first-line choice, while quinolone-based therapy and single-capsule Pylera® should be considered as rescue therapy options.

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