Background Aims: Most patients with Helicobacter pylori infection are consulted for the first time by family physicians. We aimed to survey the adherence to the newest guidelines of the management of H. pylori infection in the primary and secondary care settings in Hungary. Methods: From a total of 793 physicians, 94 trainees in family medicine, 334 family physicians without and 195 with board certification in internal medicine, 87 internists, 78 family paediatricians were invited to take part in the study. Diagnostic and therapeutic attitudes towards H. pylori infection were compared by a voluntary and anonymous questionnaire. Results: Participants test for H. pylori infection in 92.8% of cases with a family history of peptic ulcer or 76.9% of gastric cancer, 68.9% of dyspepsia and 49.9% of non-specific abdominal complaints, before initiation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID; 17.3%) and antiplatelet treatment (14.5%), respectively. They confirm the success of eradication therapy in 88.1% mainly by urea breath test. Most of them initiate eradication therapy by themselves and only 22.4% refer their patients to a gastroenterologist. Clarithromycin-based standard triple therapy is the most preferred (62.1%) and only 3.7% choose quadruple combination with bismuth as first-line and 48.1% as second-line therapy. We found significant differences between groups with respect to the physicians’ own infection, localization of practice, and sources of information on H. pylori infection. Internists are more likely to clarify H. pylori status before the initiation of NSAID and antiplatelet therapies, initiate second-line therapies and use bismuth compared to the other groups. Family physicians with board certification in internal medicine are also prone to start eradication therapy and less prone to refer patients to a gastroenterologist. Family paediatricians prefer stool antigen determination, screen family members and prefer gastroenterologist consultation more often, and use bismuth less frequently than the other groups. Family physicians with previous infection check for H. pylori infection more frequently before the initiation of NSAID treatment and are more likely to use histology to detect H. pylori. Postgraduate trainings were the most popular source of information. Conclusion: The adherence to the recent recommendations of current guidelines is moderate. There is a need to increase adherence to current recommendations by family physicians and internists.

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