Aims: Ascites is one of the major complications in advanced cirrhotic patients. Tolvaptan is a non-peptide orally available arginine vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist. We investigated and found that tolvaptan therapy improved the prognosis and predictive factor of cirrhotic patients with ascites. Methods: Overall, 99 patients with newly diagnosed ascites with cirrhosis were enrolled. No patients had intrahepatic malignancy. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on tolvaptan therapy: 86 patients treated with tolvaptan (tolvaptan-group) and 13 patients treated without tolvaptan (non-tolvaptan-group). Tolvaptan-responder was defined as body weight loss of ≥1.5 kg/week after administering tolvaptan. Results: Tolvaptan therapy was effective in 61.6% of cirrhotic patients. There was a significant difference in the overall survival (OS) between the tolvaptan-responder-group and the other groups (p < 0.001). Male (HR 5.05; p = 0.01), tolvaptan responder (HR 0.21; p = 0.02), and dosage of furosemide < 40 mg/day (HR 0.17; p = 0.01) were factors that were independently associated with the OS. The multivariate analysis revealed that C-reactive protein < 0.9 mg/dL (HR 0.07; p = 0.001), and furosemide dosage < 40 mg/day (HR 0.09; p = 0.003) were independently associated with the tolvaptan response. Conclusion: Therapeutic response to tolvaptan was associated with longer survival in cirrhosis patients complicated with ascites. These preliminary findings warrant validation and further exploration.

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