Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most rapidly rising clinical problems in the 21st century. So far no effective drug treatment has been established to cure this disease. Bile acids (BAs) have a variety of signaling properties, which can be used therapeutically for modulating hepatic metabolism and inflammation. A side-chain shorted derivative of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is 24 nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA) and it represents a new class of drugs for treatment of liver diseases. NorUDCA has unique biochemical and therapeutic properties, since it is relatively resistant to conjugation with glycine or taurine compared to UDCA. NorUDCA undergoes cholehepatic shunting, resulting in ductular targeting, bicarbonate-rich hypercholeresis, and cholangiocyte protection. Furthermore, it showed anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-lipotoxic properties in several animal models. As such, NorUDCA is a promising new approach in the treatment of cholestatic and metabolic liver diseases. This review is a summary of current BA-based therapeutic approaches in the treatment of the fatty liver disease.