Given the emerging role of endoscopic procedures in the treatment of obesity and rapid changes in endoscopic technologies and techniques, this review considers the current state of endoscopic management of obesity. Endoluminal interventions performed entirely through the GI tract by using flexible endoscopy offer the potential for an ambulatory weight loss procedure that may be safer and more cost- effective compared with current surgical approaches. Endoscopic techniques attempt to mimic the anatomic features of bariatric surgery. Accordingly, there are two main endoscopic weight loss modalities – restrictive and malabsorptive. Restrictive procedures act to decrease gastric volume by space-occupying prosthesis and/or by suturing or stapling devices, while malabsorptive procedures tend to create malabsorption by preventing food contact with the duodenum and proximal jejunum. The former include intragastric balloon treatment, endoluminal vertical gastroplasty, transoral gastroplasty and transoral endoscopic restrictive implant system, while the latter include duodenojejunal bypass sleeve. Gastroduodenojejunal bypass sleeve is a combination of both procedures. Except for intragastric balloon, all mentioned procedures are rather new, tested on a small number of human subjects, with a high rate of success, but with limited knowledge on safety and long-term efficacy. The role of gastric electrical stimulation and intragastric injections of botulinum toxin in obesity treatment is also considered as is the role of minimally invasive bariatric endoscopic interventions.

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