Obesity causes chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to systemic metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity-linked disorders that fall under the definition of metabolic syndrome. Adipose tissue is a key endocrine organ as it releases multiple bioactive substances, known as adipose-derived secreted factors or adipokines, that have proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory activities. Dysregulated production or secretion of these adipokines owing to adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-linked complications. In this emerging context, the gut microbiota-metabolism interactions play an increasingly important role in the understanding and hopefully future treatment of complex metabolic unbalances responsible for insulin resistance and cardiovascular high-risk diseases.

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