Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver and among the most common cancers worldwide. The distribution pattern of HCC shows geographical variation and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. Environmental, infectious, nutritional, metabolic, and endocrine factors contribute directly or indirectly to hepatocarcinogenesis. The synchronous occurrence of different risk factors, such as chronic viral hepatitis B and C, aflatoxin exposure, alcohol consumption or iron overload, in a single patient or patient population further increases the risk. HCC is commonly associated with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Different genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC, and may be divided into four major groups: genes regulating DNA damage response; genes involved in cell cycle control; genes involved in growth inhibition and apoptosis, and genes responsible for cell–cell interaction and signal transduction. Hepatocarcinogenesis is mediated by loss of heterozygosity, somatic mutation, de novo methylation, and/or functional inactivation. As yet, there is no evidence for an ordered sequence of genomic events leading to hepatocarcinogenesis. The pattern of genomic alterations shows great variability, often between two different HCCs from a single patient. HCC evolves from precancerous lesions, and well-differentiated HCC further progresses to a less differentiated form. However, there is still great need for the definition of objective morphological, phenotypic and genetic markers for the progression of HCC.

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