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Keywords: Cytokine
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Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Cells Tissues Organs (2003) 174 (1-2): 34–48.
Published Online: 12 June 2003
... proteins. Catabolic pathways are altered by cytokine genes such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which are upregulated in OA. In addition, IL-1 and TNF-α downregulate extracellular matrix protein biosynthesis while concomitantly upregulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene...