Introduction: The intestine plays an important role in mediating between the bird and its nutritional environment. The yolk stalk, also known as Meckel’s diverticulum, is a landmark between the jejunum and ileum. This work aimed to investigate the anatomical, histological, and electron microscopical features of cellular components of the Meckel’s diverticulum (MD) in adult geese. Methods: The intestine was dissected from the bird’s body cavity, and Meckel’s diverticulum was exposed and prepared for light and electron microscopical examinations. Results: Our results revealed that the MD mucosa is thrown up into villi and crypts, and the mucosal epithelium is a columnar epithelium with goblet cells as well as intraepithelial lymphocytes. Lymphoid follicles and numerous immune cells were demonstrated within the lamina propria. The mucous glands were also observed within the lamina propria and among the lymphoid follicles. The lining epithelium of MD appeared with different staining affinities: dark cells (electron-dense) and light cells (electron-lucent) contained few mitochondria and more secretory vesicles, while dark cells contained more mitochondria and fewer secretory vesicles. Immunohistochemical analysis of MD revealed positive immunoreactivity for several markers, such as CD117, chromogranin, PLCβ, cytokeratin, MHC II, and S100. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings suggest that MD is considered an immune organ in adult geese.

1.
Casteleyn
C
,
Doom
M
,
Lambrechts
E
,
Van den Broeck
W
,
Simoens
P
,
Cornillie
P
.
Locations of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the 3-month-old chicken: a review
.
Avian Pathol
.
2010
;
39
(
3
):
143
50
. .
2.
Nickel
R
,
Schummer
A
,
Seiferle
E
.
Anatomy of the domestic birds
.
1977
.
3.
Besoluk
K
,
Eken
E
,
Boydak
M
,
Tipirdamaz
S
.
Morphological studies on Meckel’s diverticulum in Geese (Anser anser domesticus)
.
Anat Histol Embryol
.
2002
;
31
(
5
):
290
2
. .
4.
Mohammadpour
A
.
Morphological studies on Meckel’s diverticulum in the duck (Ansa ansa domesticus)
.
Iran J Vet Res
.
2006
;
7
(
1
):
14
6
.
5.
Anwar
SM
,
Abd-Elhafeez
HH
,
Abdel-Maksoud
FM
,
Abdalla
KEH
.
Morph-anatomic and histochemical study of ileum of goose (Alopochen egyptiacus) with special references to immune cells, mucous and serous goblet cells, telocytes, and dark and light smooth muscle fibers
.
Microsc Res Tech
.
2021
;
84
(
6
):
1328
47
. .
6.
Gofur
MR
.
Meckel’s diverticulum in animals and birds: an immuno-pathoclinical perspective
.
Bangladesh J Vet Med
.
2020
;
18
(
1
):
1
12
. .
7.
Yahchouchy
EK
,
Marano
AF
,
Etienne
JC
,
Fingerhut
AL
.
Meckel’s diverticulum
.
J Am Coll Surg
.
2001
;
192
(
5
):
658
62
. .
8.
Nagy
N
,
Oláh
I
,
Vervelde
L
.
Structure of the avian lymphoid system
.
Avian immunology
.
Elsevier
;
2022
. p.
11
44
.
9.
Besoluk
K
,
Eken
E
,
Boydak
M
,
Tipirdamaz
S
.
Morphological studies on Meckel’s diverticulum in geese (Anser anser domesticus)
.
Anat Histol Embryol
.
2002
;
31
(
5
):
290
2
. .
10.
Donato
R
.
S100: a multigenic family of calcium-modulated proteins of the EF-hand type with intracellular and extracellular functional roles
.
Int J Biochem Cel Biol
.
2001
;
33
(
7
):
637
68
. .
11.
Suvarna
KS
,
Layton
C
,
Bancroft
JD
.
Bancroft’s theory and practice of histological techniques E-Book
.
Elsevier Health Sciences
;
2018
.
12.
Grimelius
L
.
A silver nitrate stain for alpha-2 cells in human pancreatic islets
.
Acta Soc Med Ups
.
1968
;
73
(
5–6
):
243
70
.
13.
Reynolds
ES
.
The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy
.
J Cel Biol
.
1963
;
17
(
1
):
208
12
. .
14.
Abdel-Maksoud
FM
,
Abd-Elhafeez
HH
,
Soliman
SA
.
Author Correction: morphological changes of telocytes in camel efferent ductules in response to seasonal variations during the reproductive cycle
.
Sci Rep
.
2020
;
10
(
1
):
2393
. .
15.
Abdel-Maksoud
FM
,
Fadl
S
,
Abou-Elmagd
A
,
Saleh
AMM
.
Post-hatching developmental changes in the adrenal gland of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica): histological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies
.
Microsc Res Tech
.
2023
;
86
(
11
):
1461
74
. .
16.
Attaai
AH
,
Hussein
MT
,
Aly
KH
,
Abdel-Maksoud
FM
.
Morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies of the donkey’s eye with special reference to the AFGF and ACE expression
.
Microsc Microanal
.
2022
:
1
14
. .
17.
Koch
T
.
Anatomy of the chicken and domestic birds
;
1973
.
18.
König
H
,
Feder
F
,
Liebich
H
.
Verdauungsapparat (apparatus digestorius)
. In: Kongi HE,
Liebich
HG
, editors.
Anatomie and Propädeutik des Geflügels
.
Stuttgart, Germany
:
Schattauer
;
2001
. p.
81
104
.
19.
Ku
SK
,
Lee
H
,
Park
K
,
Lee
J
.
Immuno histochemistry of gastrointestinal ehdocrine cells in the meckel’s diveiticulum of the bean goose, anser fabalis latham
.
Korean J Biol Sci
.
2000
;
4
(
4
):
375
9
. .
20.
Pelaseyed
T
,
Bergström
JH
,
Gustafsson
JK
,
Ermund
A
,
Birchenough
GMH
,
Schütte
A
,
.
The mucus and mucins of the goblet cells and enterocytes provide the first defense line of the gastrointestinal tract and interact with the immune system
.
Immunol Rev
.
2014
;
260
(
1
):
8
20
. .
21.
Clark
A
,
Mach
N
.
The crosstalk between the gut microbiota and mitochondria during exercise
.
Front Physiol
.
2017
;
8
:
319
. .
22.
Bezuidenhout
A
,
Van Aswegen
G
.
A light microscopic and immunocytochemical study of the gastrointestinal tract of the ostrich (Struthio camelus L.)
.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res
.
1990
;
57
(
1
):
37
48
.
23.
Rodrigues
M
,
Abreu
JA
,
Tivane
C
,
Wagner
P
.
Microscopical study of the digestive tract of Blue and Yellow macaws
. In:
Méndez-Vilas
A
, editor.
Current microscopy contributions to advances in science and technology
;
2012
. p.
414
21
.
24.
Nasrin
M
,
Siddiqi
MNH
,
Masum
MA
,
Wares
MA
.
Gross and histological studies of digestive tract of broilers during postnatal growth and development
.
J Bangladesh Agric Univ
.
2012
;
10
(
1
):
69
77
. .
25.
Zaher
M
,
El Ghareeb
A
,
Hamdi
H
,
AbuAmod
F
.
Anatomical, histological and histochemical adaptations of the avian alimentary canal to their food habits: I-Coturnix coturnix
.
Life Sci J
.
2012
;
9
(
3
):
253
75
.
26.
Rana
J
,
Dhote
B
,
Ambwani
T
,
Patel
S
.
Histochemical studies on small intestine of uttara fowl
.
IJSET
.
2016
;
5
(
3
):
1181
8
.
27.
Koutsos
E
,
Arias
V
.
Intestinal ecology: interactions among the gastrointestinal tract, nutrition, and the microflora
.
J Appl Poultry Res
.
2006
;
15
(
1
):
161
73
. .
28.
Sternini
C
,
Anselmi
L
,
Rozengurt
E
.
Enteroendocrine cells: a site of ‘taste’in gastrointestinal chemosensing
.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
.
2008
;
15
(
1
):
73
8
. .
29.
Murphy
KG
,
Bloom
SR
.
Gut hormones and the regulation of energy homeostasis
.
Nature
.
2006
;
444
(
7121
):
854
9
. .
30.
Murphy
KG
,
Dhillo
WS
,
Bloom
SR
.
Gut peptides in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis
.
Endocr Rev
.
2006
;
27
(
7
):
719
27
. .
31.
Drucker
DJ
.
The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis
.
J Clin Invest
.
2007
;
117
(
1
):
24
32
. .
32.
Geraedts
MCP
,
Troost
F
,
Saris
W
.
Gastrointestinal targets to modulate satiety and food intake
.
Obes Rev
.
2011
;
12
(
6
):
470
7
. .
33.
Gulmez
N
,
Nazli
M
,
Aslan
S
,
Liman
N
.
Immunolocalisation of serotonin, gastrin, somatostatin and glucagon in entero-endocrine cells of the goose (Anser anser)
.
Acta Vet Hung
.
2003
;
51
(
4
):
439
49
. .
34.
Sjölund
K
,
Sandén
G
,
Håkanson
R
,
Sundler
F
.
Endocrine cells in human intestine: an immunocytochemical study
.
Gastroenterology
.
1983
;
85
(
5
):
1120
30
. .
35.
Borges
R
,
Díaz-Vera
J
,
Domínguez
N
,
Arnau
MR
,
Machado
JD
.
Chromogranins as regulators of exocytosis
.
J Neurochem
.
2010
;
114
(
2
):
335
43
. .
36.
Rindi
G
,
Leiter
AB
,
Kopin
AS
,
Bordi
C
,
Solcia
E
.
The “normal” endocrine cell of the gut: changing concepts and new evidences
.
Ann N Y Acad Sci
.
2004
;
1014
:
1
12
. .
37.
Olah
I
,
Glick
B
,
Taylor
R
Jr
.
Meckel’s diverticulum. II. A novel lymphoepithelial organ in the chicken
.
Anat Rec
.
1984
;
208
(
2
):
253
63
. .
38.
Oláh
I
,
Glick
B
.
Meckel's diverticulum. I. Extramedullary myelopoiesis in the yolk sac of hatched chickens (Gallus domesticus)
.
Anat Rec
.
1984
;
208
(
2
):
243
52
. .
39.
Jeurissen
S
,
Wagenaar
F
,
Janse
EM
.
Further characterization of M cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of the chicken
.
Poult Sci
.
1999
;
78
(
7
):
965
72
. .
40.
Foster
BM
,
Zaidi
D
,
Young
TR
,
Mobley
ME
,
Kerr
BA
.
CD117/c-kit in cancer stem cell-mediated progression and therapeutic resistance
.
Biomedicines
.
2018
;
6
(
1
):
31
. .
41.
Lennartsson
J
,
Rönnstrand
L
.
Stem cell factor receptor/c-Kit: from basic science to clinical implications
.
Physiol Rev
.
2012
;
92
(
4
):
1619
49
. .
42.
Park
MS
,
Lee
YE
,
Kim
HR
,
Shin
JH
,
Cho
HW
,
Lee
JH
,
.
Phospholipase C beta 2 protein overexpression is a favorable prognostic indicator in newly diagnosed normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia
.
Ann Lab Med
.
2021
;
41
(
4
):
409
13
. .
43.
Lyon
AM
,
Tesmer
JJ
.
Structural insights into phospholipase C-β function
.
Mol Pharmacol
.
2013
;
84
(
4
):
488
500
. .
44.
Sedaghat
F
,
Notopoulos
A
.
S100 protein family and its application in clinical practice
.
Hippokratia
.
2008
;
12
(
4
):
198
204
.
45.
Gipson
IK
.
Goblet cells of the conjunctiva: a review of recent findings
.
Prog Retin Eye Res
.
2016
;
54
:
49
63
. .
46.
Chaplin
DD
.
Overview of the immune response
.
J Allergy Clin Immunol
.
2010
;
125
(
2 Suppl 2
):
S3
23
. .
You do not currently have access to this content.