Momordica charantia (MC) is a traditional plant widely used since ancient times for wound healing. This study evaluated its potential effects on tendon healing. Adult male Wistar albino rats (n = 32, 8 rats in each group) were anesthetized, and their Achilles tendons were prepared for surgical procedures. Group 1 (Cont = control group) was not subjected to any surgery and was used as a control group for baseline values. Group 2 (PR = primary repair group) underwent primary repair (PR) with a monofilament suture after a full-thickness incision of the Achilles tendon. A full-thickness incision was also made to the Achilles tendon of group 3 (CT = collagen tube-administered group), followed by PR and collagen tube insertion. In group 4 (MC = M. charantia-administered group), 1 mL of MC extract was applied locally on the collagen tube in addition to the surgical procedure applied to group 3. The Achilles tendons were excised on the postoperative 40th day and examined stereologically, histologically, and bioinformatically. Data showed that the total volume of the collagen fibers was higher in MC and CT groups than in the PR group. The total volume of the tendon was decreased in MC and CT groups than in the Cont group. The ratios between the volumes of the collagen fibers and total tendon in the MC and CT groups were significantly different from PR, but not different from the Cont group. Additionally, MC improved tenoblastic activity, collagen production, and neovascularization. Bioinformatic interactions showed that the proteases of MC could trigger the signals playing a role on vasculogenesis, reducing inflammation, and contributing to tenoblast activation and collagen remodeling. MC extract ameliorates the healing of injured tendon and can provide satisfactory tendon repair. Further works are recommended to explore the healing capacity of MC.

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