This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo polymeric membranes obtained by a rotary jet-spinning process for the repair of critical bone defects in the calvaria of Wistar rats, for future use in tissue engineering. Experimental sample collections were performed on the 30, 60 and 90th postoperative days, and the analyses performed were histomorphometric, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting. Reducing inflammatory infiltrate in all groups and experimental periods, angiogenesis on the 30th day did not show any difference between the groups, on the 60th day, 5% polycaprolactone/beta-tricalcium phosphate(PCL/β-TCP) was high compared to control (C), and on the 90th day, the same group reduced when compared to C and 10% PCL/β-TCP. The fibroplasia presented oscillations in every segment; on the 30th and 60th day, there was an increase in 5% PCL/β-TCP, which decreased by the 90th day compared to group C. 10% PCL/β-TCP decreased compared to C on the 60th and 90th day. The percentage of the collagen area remained high in all groups and all experimental periods. Immunohistochemistry quantifications showed variations in bone metabolism suggesting new bone formation. The 5 and 10% PCL/β-TCP scaffold were promising for the bone regeneration process because they participated in the modulation of inflammation, angiogenesis, fibroplasia, and collagenosis.

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