To establish the influence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum lipids (BSL) on cell differentiation marker expression, bovine adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous tissue were incubated for 14 days in 4 types of differentiation media containing 10% FBS and 10 µL/mL BSL (TRT-1), no FBS and 10 µL/mL of BSL (TRT-2), 10% FBS and no BSL (TRT-3), or no supplements (TRT-4). Cells were subjected to Nile red staining, immunocytochemistry (CD73, CD90, CD105, DLK1, FabP4), and quantitative real-time PCR (CD73, CD90, CD105, FabP4). The number of cells presenting FabP4 and the percentage of mature adipocytes with large lipid droplets were increased in TRT-2, accompanied by a robust increase in FabP4 mRNA abundance and a decrease in DLK1-positive cells. In preadipocytes, CD73 was present around the nucleus and translocated towards cell membranes during differentiation. Although the percentage of CD73-positive cells was not different among treatments, its mRNA abundance, immunocytochemical staining intensity, and translocation towards cell membranes were decreased when the medium contained no FBS (TRT-2 and TRT-4). All cells showed a diffuse distribution of CD90 and CD105 and remained positive for these markers irrespective of the treatment. However, the CD90 and CD105 mRNA abundance was decreased in TRT-2 and TRT-4; i.e., in media containing no FBS. The presence of FBS increased the absolute number of cell nuclei as assessed by DAPI fluorescence. Our results suggest that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes display typical stem cell markers. The differentiation into mature adipocytes is promoted by BSL, whereas FBS endorses cell proliferation.