The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with either primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) or ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC) treated with paclitaxel plus carboplatin chemotherapy. We retrospectively identified 22 PPC patients and 55 stage III–IV OSC patients treated between 2002 and 2007. After exploratory laparotomy, all patients received paclitaxel and carboplatin every 3 weeks, with the goal of optimal cytoreduction. There were no statistically significant differences between the PPC and OSC groups with regard to tumor stage, residual tumor after debulking surgery (initial or interval), serum cancer antigen (CA) 125 levels at diagnosis, and completion of first-line chemotherapy. The progression-free survival (PFS) durations were 12.7 months (95% CI, 6.3–18.5) in the patients with PPC and 15.9 months (95% CI, 13.3–18.5) in those with OSC (p = 0.016). However, the median survival durations were 26.5 months (95% CI, 14.6–38.3) in the patients with PPC and 38 months (95% CI, 23.8–53.8) in those with OSC (p = 0.188). Survival was longer for all patients whose CA125 levels normalized to 26 U/ml during and after treatment. Overall survival (OS) of the patients with PPC was similar to that of the patients with OSC, suggesting that management for advanced-stage OSC would be similar to that for PPC. The combination of optimal debulking with paclitaxel plus carboplatin chemotherapy may offer patients the most effective treatment. The CA125 nadir after cytoreductive surgery can be considered a prognostic factor for OS and PFS in patients with PPC.

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