Background: In surgical patients with known malignancy, the odds ratio for an episode of a venous thromboembolism is approximately 6.5 compared to a group of patients without malignancy undergoing the same procedure [Heit et al.: Arch Intern Med 2000;160:809–815]. Case Report: We present a case of a 46-year-old Caucasian male with a history of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. The patient received neoadjuvant treatment prior to low anterior resection with diverting colostomy. He received short-term prophylaxis for venous thrombosis, but unfortunately developed a blood clot in a lower extremity several weeks after surgery. Conclusion: There is a well-defined role in carefully selected patients for the use of extended prophylaxis to prevent venous thromboembolic complications following cancer surgery.

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