A 64-year-old male patient was diagnosed with 3 consecutive non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). In the current study, we applied whole-genome gene expression analysis to control, primary and locally recurrent cancer, and supposed metastasis samples of a single patient. According to our knowledge, there are no published papers describing the gene expression profiles of a single patient’s squamous cell lung cancers. As the histology and differentiation grade of the primary cancer and the supposed metastasis differed minimally, but local recurrence was poorly differentiated, molecular profiling of the samples was carried out in order to confirm or reject the hypothesis of second primary cancer. Principal component analysis of the gene expression data revealed distinction of the local recurrence. Gene ontology analysis showed no molecular characteristics of metastasis in the supposed metastasis. Gene expression analysis is valuable and can be supportive in decision-making of diagnostically complicated cancer cases.

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