A 70-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department due to general fatigue and a persistent low fever. We performed percutaneous nephrostomy and administered antibiotics for the pyelonephritis due to her left staghorn calculus. After the infection had been brought under control and her general condition improved, we performed nephrectomy. A pathologic examination revealed renal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in addition to xanthogranulomatous inflammation. Seventeen days after the operation, computed tomography demonstrated local recurrence of the tumor; therefore, she received palliative care. Two months after her operation, she died of renal SCC.

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