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The aim of the present consensus paper was to provide recommendations for clinical practice on the individual etiological and modifying factors to be assessed in the individual diagnosis of caries, and the methods for their assessment, supporting personalized treatment decisions. The executive councils of the European Organisation for Caries Research (ORCA) and the European Federation of Conservative Dentistry (EFCD) nominated ten experts each to join the expert panel. The steering committee formed three work groups which were asked to provide recommendations on 1) caries detection and diagnostic methods, 2) caries activity assessment and 3) forming individualised caries diagnoses. The experts responsible for “individualised caries diagnosis” searched and evaluated the relevant literature, drafted this manuscript and made provisional consensus recommendations. These recommendations were discussed and refined during the structured process in the whole work group. Finally, the agreement for each recommendation was determined using an anonymous eDelphi survey. The threshold for approval of recommendations was determined at 70% agreement. Ten recommendations were approved and agreed by the whole expert panel, covering medical history, caries experience, plaque, diet, fluoride and saliva. While the level of evidence was low, the level of agreement was typically very high, except for one recommendation on salivary flow measurement, where 70% agreed. It is recommended that all aspects of caries lesion progression and activity, recent caries experience, medical conditions and medications, plaque, diet, fluoride and saliva should be synthesized to arrive at an individual diagnosis. The expert panel merged evidence from existing guidelines and scientific literature with practical considerations and provided recommendations for their use in daily dental practice.

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