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Background: Tooth brushing is a universal recommendation. However, the recommendations related to the time of its execution are conflicting, especially when dealing with patients at risk of erosive tooth wear (ETW) or dental caries. Summary: Our objective was to summarize the evidence on the timing of brushing with fluoridated toothpaste in relation to ETW and cariogenic dietary challenges. We conducted a scoping review following the PRISMA-ScR checklist, using three databases searching for in-vivo, in-situ, or in-vitro studies involving human teeth exposed to either a cariogenic or an erosive challenge. Only models including human saliva and fluoride were assessed. Data selection, extraction, and risk of bias analysis were done in duplicate and independently. From 1,545 identified studies, 17 (16 related to ETW and 1 to dental caries) were included. Most evidence (n=10) supported that brushing with a fluoride-containing product does not increase ETW, independent of the moment of brushing. Delaying tooth brushing up to 1 hour (n=4) or individualized recommendations based on the patient's problem (n=2) were less frequent. Only one study reported that brushing pre- or post-meal does not affect Streptococcus mutans counts. Most data was in-situ (n=13), and the overall study quality was judged as sufficient/low risk of bias. Key Messages: Although the available evidence lacked robust clinical studies, tooth brushing using fluoridated products immediately after an erosive challenge does not increase the risk of ETW and can be recommended, which is in line with recommendations for dental caries prevention. Furthermore, we suggest updating the international guidelines to promote individualized recommendations based on risk factors to prevent either ETW or dental caries.

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