Erosive tooth wear is a multifactorial condition of an increasing prevalence. There is a need for discovering individual genetic predisposition for the development of this condition. Considering that the chromosome X locus was previously shown to be associated with dental caries, the aim of the present study was to look for the association between this locus and erosive tooth wear when dietary habits are considered as a co-factor. Saliva samples, erosive wear experience data, and dietary information from 16- to 18-year-old dental patients (n = 705) were used. Genotyping analyses were performed, and thereafter, analyses considering diet and oral hygiene data, using logistic regression, with the assumption that erosive tooth wear is a complex gene-environment model. Genotypic analyses revealed an association between chromosome X marker rs1324156 and erosive tooth wear phenotype. Logistic regression analysis showed that, in the presence of less common allele of rs12687601 and rs1324156, erosive tooth wear more likely develops when associated with numerous dietary variables from the questionnaire. These results indicate that erosive tooth wear may be the result of gene-environment interactions.